|Severe humanitarian crisis|
|Situation of concern|
- Severe humanitarian crisis
- Humanitarian crisis
- Situation of concern
- Watch list
Snapshot 22–28 July 2015
Somalia: More than 10,000 people have been displaced in Lower Shabelle and Bay regions since AMISOM and Somali armed forces began their offensive. Al Shabaab has lost control of Bardhere in Gedo and Dinsoor in Bay. In accessible areas of Hudur town, Bakool, 33% GAM and 19% SAM were observed in a MUAC assessment in July – a significant deterioration since June. Very critical malnutrition rates persist in Bulo Burde, Hiraan.
DRC: Measles has broken out in Maniema, with 415 cases recorded so far. 2,115 cases have been reported in Orientale this year, and 15,000 in Katanga. One reason for the rise in cases is lack of vaccination. Dungu, in Haut-Uele, Orientale, has seen a significant fall in WASH coverage and routine vaccination.
South Sudan: The cholera outbreak continues, with 1,375 cases recorded since 18 May, most in Juba county. At 3.2%, the case fatality rate is double the global average. In Unity state, the government has prevented food aid reaching Malakal.
Updated: 28/07/2015. Next update 04/08/2015.
Afghanistan Country Analysis
- Nearly 4,200 civilians killed over January–June, a 16% increase on the same period in 2014 (USAID, 02/07/2015). Casualties from mines, IEDs and ERWs remain significant (UNMAS/MAPA 30/06/2015)
- 6.9 million in need of humanitarian aid in 2015. Badghis, Helmand, Kunar, Nangarhar, and Wardak most need assistance (UNICEF, 21/01/2015; OCHA, 25/11/2014).
- 205,440 refugees from Pakistan since mid-June 2014; long-term concerns over protracted displacement (UNHCR, 11/06/2015).
- 947,870 IDPs in Afghanistan. Significant new displacements in Kunduz province since April (IDMC, 16/06/2015).
- 500,000–990,000 people will be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or higher food security outcomes by November 2015 (FEWSNET, 22/07/2015).
Natural disasters and armed conflicts in Afghanistan have caused humanitarian crisis. Assistance needs include food, healthcare, and protection.
The Afghan Government faces internal and external challenges to its capacity, legitimacy, and stability. The security environment is highly volatile and expected to deteriorate as international troops gradually withdraw from the country.
Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah were sworn in as Afghanistan’s President and Prime Minister, respectively, in September 2014 (Reuters, 29/09/2014). The pair were rival presidential candidates in disputed elections, but are struggling to maintain a unity government (Reuters, 08/07/2015; AFP, 26/09/2014). Leaders of ethnic groups have criticised Ghani for filling key government posts to Pashtun kin (Reuters, 08/07/2015; AFP, 26/09/2014). Parliamentary elections scheduled for April 2015 were postponed because of security concerns and disagreements over vote procedure. The current Parliament’s mandate has been extended until a vote can be held (Reuters, 19/06/2015; local media, 01/04/2015).
Peace Talks with the Taliban
Afghan officials and Taliban met in Islamabad in Pakistan on 8 July and have agreed to meet again end July, potentially in China. Informal talks in recent months have not brought any breakthrough (AFP, 24/07/2015; 08/07/2015). Taliban leader Mullah Omar has expressed his support for the peace talks (The Guardian, 15/07/2015).
As of 22 June, nearly 4,200 civilians have been killed in 2015, a 16% increase on the same period in 2014 (USAID, 02/07/2015). 3,699 civilians were killed and 6,849 injured in all 2014 (UNAMA, 18/02/2015). Incidents in 2015 have been concentrated in Helmand and Kabul, with intense fighting between Afghan forces, the Taliban, and other anti-government groups also reported in northern provinces in recent months, including Kunduz, Badakhshan, Nangarhar, Faryab, Baghlan, and Nuristan (Cordaid, 07/07/2015; RSF, 07/07/2015; local media, 16/07/2015).
Remote parts of southern and southeastern Afghanistan, near the border with Pakistan, remain under Taliban control. The group has intensified attacks since April, especially in the north, in particular in Badakhshan and Faryab (local media, 16/07/2015; Al Jazeera, 13/06/2015). The group is increasingly financed by criminal enterprises including heroin laboratories, illegal mining, and kidnapping (UNSC, 02/02/2015).
Islamic State (IS)
Militants fighting under the IS banner in Afghanistan, including an unknown number of Taliban defectors and foreign fighters, have reportedly seized territory from the Taliban in at least six of Nangarhar’s 21 districts. Uncertainty remains regarding their links with IS in the Middle East (Reuters, 29/06/2015).
International Military Presence
NATO formally ended its combat mission in Afghanistan on 31 December 2014, moving to the Resolute Support mission made up of 9,800 US troops and 3,000 soldiers from other member states. The focus of the mission is on supporting Afghan forces’ fight against the Taliban, along with US counter-terrorism operations (Reuters, 01/01/2015).
Conflict Developments and Incidents
Helmand: A suicide attack on police headquarters in Lashkar Gah killed three and wounded more than 50 on 30 June (international media, 30/06/2015). An explosion in Marka district on 20 June killed 14 people and wounded five (AFP, 20/06/2015).
Kabul: Two Taliban suicide attacks targeting a NATO convoy and a branch of the National Directorate of Security killed one and wounded five on 7 July (AFP, 07/07/2015). A Taliban suicide attack targeting NATO troops killed two and wounded 26 on 30 June (international media, 30/06/2015). At least two people were killed and 31 wounded in a Taliban attack on the Afghan Parliament on 22 June, when President Ghani was to introduce his Defence Minister nominee (AFP, 22/06/2015).
Kunduz: Intense fighting has been reported between Afghan forces and the Taliban in the province in recent months. An explosion in Kunduz city killed two and wounded four on 12 July (AFP, 12/07/2015). Taliban offensives took place in five districts on 2 and 3 May (AAN, 3/05/2015). The Taliban, supported by foreign fighters, have come close to the provincial capital, cutting it off in May (BBC, 07/05/2015).
Faryab: A suicide attack killed 19 people and injured at least 28 in Almar district on 22 July (UNAMA, 22/07/2015). Since early July the Taliban has seized more than 100 villages in Qasyar, Almar, and Shirin Tagab districts (local media, 16/07/2015). 40 houses in Almar were set on fire (UNAMA, 15/07/2015).
Baghlan: At least 20 people were killed and eight wounded in a gunfight at a wedding ceremony in Deh Salah district on 27 July (International Media, 27/07/2015). At least 40 civilians were wounded by a bomb attack targeting a mosque in Baghlan province on 13 July (UNAMA, 14/07/2015).
Other incidents: A suicide attack near the military base of Camp Chapman in Khost province killed at least 33 people, mostly women and children, and wounded six on 12 July (AFP, 12/07/2015; BBC, 13/07/2015). An explosion in Tagab district, Kapisa, killed ten and wounded six on 12 July (AFP, 12/07/2015). An explosion in Kandahar on 11 July killed three (AFP, 11/07/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Planning figures are for 6.9 million Afghans in need of humanitarian aid in 2015, including 2.8 million children, compared to 7.4 million in 2014 (UNICEF, 21/01/2015). Badghis, Helmand, Kunar, Nangarhar, and Wardak most need assistance (OCHA, 25/11/2014).
Humanitarian access is a key operational concern: tens of thousands of civilians remain trapped in conflict zones as of end June (USAID, 02/07/2015). Deteriorated security conditions in Helmand significantly hamper the delivery of assistance (OCHA, 15/07/2015). Journalists have had to withdraw from Badakhshan and Nangarhar due to insecurity (RSF, 07/07/2015). Commercial flights to Kunduz were suspended in May. Conflict in Chardara district in particular makes it increasingly difficult for civilians to reach Kunduz city to access basic services (MSF, 25/06/2015; AFP, 08/05/2015).
Security Incidents Involving Aid Workers
Aid workers were assaulted by Afghan forces in a health facility in Kunduz on 1 July (MSF, 03/07/2015). 14 aid workers were killed in 27 incidents reported against national and international organisations across the country in June, including nine national NGO workers in Balk province on 2 June, and five incidents involving health facilities and health staff (OCHA, 15/07/2015; Reuters, 02/06/2015). 11 aid workers were killed in 21 incidents involving violence against humanitarian staff or damage to NGO facilities in May (USAID; 02/07/2015).
In 2014, there were 293 incidents against aid workers, including 57 killed (UN, 11/04/2015; OCHA, 31/12/2014).
107,451 people were affected by floods, landslides and heavy snowfall in 2015, mostly in February; 513 people were killed, and 14,460 houses damaged or destroyed. Badghis, Faryab, and Nangarhar provinces were most affected (OCHA/IOM, 02/07/2015).
Increasing insecurity has led to a rise in internal displacement. As of end June, 947,870 IDPs were recorded, compared to 805,409 in December 2014. 223,280 are in the south (24%), 220,430 in the west (23%), and 169,960 in the centre (18%). Priority needs are for water, food, housing, and employment (IDMC, 16/06/2015; UNHCR 31/12/2014). The security context challenges access and identification of IDPs (UNCHR, 24/05/2015).
Fighting in the north of Kunduz province since May has displaced more than 134,000 people, including 32,960 to Kunduz city, and significant numbers to Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan and Faryab provinces (OCHA, 25/06/2015; 28/05/2015).
By 31 March, 13,840 Afghans had reportedly been displaced by military operations in Helmand in 2015 (OCHA 19/04/2015).
Displacement from Pakistan to Afghanistan’s Khost and Paktika provinces has been ongoing since mid-June 2014. As of 8 June, these provinces were hosting around 205,440 refugees from Pakistan, the majority in Khost (including 10,210 families in Gulan camp) (UNHCR, 11/06/2015). There are concerns about the host communities’ ability to support the refugee population, in particular in terms of food, shelter, and education. A recent influx of 700 refugee families has been reported, but not verified (UNHCR, 15/06/2015). Spontaneous returns of refugees to Pakistan have been reported, although the number is unknown (UNHCR, 14/04/2015).
An additional 600,000 Baloch refugees who have fled insurgency activities in Pakistan since 1986 are living in precarious conditions, notably in Nimroz (AAN, 31/12/2014).
The number of reported Afghan returnees from Pakistan vary between 42,385 and 139,500 (OCHA, 15/07/2015; UNHCR, 30/06/2015). Returns have increased following security incidents in Pakistan, particularly the December 2014 Taliban attack in Peshawar. Returnees report an increasing number of protection issues as the main reasons for return: eviction notices by authorities, discrimination, movement restrictions, settlement closure, and harassment (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
30–40% of undocumented returnees are vulnerable and in need of assistance; 80% of Afghanistan is reportedly not safe for people to be sent back to (BBC, 16/07/2015; OCHA, 15/07/2015). In 2014, only 17,000 people returned from Pakistan (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Afghan Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
Some 2.6 million Afghan refugees remain in neighbouring countries, including 1.5 million in Pakistan (UN, 29/06/2015).
Approximately eight million people are food insecure, including 2.1 million severely, according to a recent vulnerability assessment (USAID, 02/07/2015). By November 2015, it is estimated that 500,000 to 990,000 people will be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security or worse (FEWSNET, 22/07/2015).
As of April, Badghis province is facing Crisis. Badakhshan, Nuristan, Ghor, Daykundi and Bamyan are Stressed (IPC Phase 2) (FEWSNET, 01/05/2015). Severe food gaps are reported in fourteen villages of Arghanjkhah district of Badakhshan, affecting 17,940 people (Food Security Cluster/USAID, 14/07/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
36% of irrigated crops and 5% of rain-fed crops were damaged by late frost in Bamyan province end May; potatoes and fruit – the main sources of cash for households – were most impacted. This is likely to affect food security (Solidarités Internationales, 16/06/2015).
The 2015 wheat harvest is expected to be above the previous two years’, except in Ghazni, Bamyan, Daikundy, Kandahar, Hilamand, Zabul, Uruzgan, Paktya, Paktika and Khost (FAO, 03/07/2015; FEWSNET/WFP, 07/06/2015).
Refugees in Khost and Paktika have exhausted short-term coping mechanisms and need livelihood opportunities to face long-term displacement (UNHCR, 26/05/2015).
Health and Nutrition
Conflict-related injuries and damage to health facilities both increased in May (WHO, 02/07/2015). There is a shortage of trained surgeons, anaesthetists, and trauma capacity in conflict-affected areas (OCHA, 25/11/2014). Nearly 80% of maternal and reproductive health needs are unmet (WHO, 10/12/2014). Tuberculosis is a high burden for Afghanistan, but many new cases were missed in 2014 due to lack of close monitoring (Government, 24/03/2015).
Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)
Ten suspected CCHF outbreaks were reported from Herat province in May. The case fatality rate has reached an alarming 40% (WHO, 02/07/2015).
Nine measles outbreaks were reported from Paktika, Ghor, and Uruzgan provinces in May (WHO, 02/07/2015). In the first quarter of 2015, 445 laboratory-confirmed cases of measles were reported, compared to 581 cases in all of 2014 (WHO, 26/04/2015).
Nearly 517,600 children suffer from SAM (UNICEF, 21/01/2015). An estimated 45% of all child deaths in refugee and IDP camps are linked to malnutrition (UNICEF, 21/01/2015). The presence of common animal diseases in areas of Khost and Paktika has reduced the availability of meat and milk products to Pakistani refugees and host communities (FEWSNET, 11/02/2015).
Three cases of polio have been reported so far in 2015 (GPEI, 03/06/2015). 28 cases were reported in 2014, mostly in conflict-affected areas, compared to 14 in 2013 and 37 in 2012 (WHO, 26/04/2015; Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 25/02/2015).
1.9 million Afghans are in need of better access to safe WASH facilities (UNICEF, 21/01/2015).
Refugee influxes have stretched already limited water and hygiene resources and infrastructure in Khost and Paktika; lack of solid waste management and latrines are major challenges, while access to latrines and potable water remains a challenge in Urgun district, Paktika (UNHCR, 15/06/2015; 08/04/2015).
A growing number of IDPs live in informal settlements in major Afghan urban centres, in substandard and crowded accommodation, with insufficient WASH facilities, food, education, and employment opportunities. Women are particularly at risk, with reduced access to education, health, and livelihood opportunities, and facing significant unmet mental health needs (NRC, 23/03/2015).
1,300 people in informal settlements in Kabul have received eviction warnings for end June. 40,000 people remain in 50 informal settlements in Kabul (USAID, 02/07/2015).
Language barriers are a challenge for refugees (UNHCR, 31/05/2015). Educational facilities in Khost are overstretched, with 344 schools employing 6,000 teachers and teaching around 360,000 children. There are 50,000 school-aged refugee children in Khost (Institute for War and Peace Reporting, 05/11/2014).
In provinces most affected by fighting, schools have closed over the fear that students might get caught in crossfire. In northern Baghlan, for example, at least 18 schools were closed in May (Reuters, 31/05/2015).
Afghan local police has reportedly been involved in intimidation, physical abuse or violence, bribe-taking, salary fraud, and theft. Incidents of rape, drug trafficking, drug abuse and the selling or renting of local police weapons and vehicles have also been reported (ICG, 05/06/2015).
The Afghan national and local police and three armed groups (Taliban, Haqqani Network, and Hezb-e-Islami) have been listed for recruitment and use of children (Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict 02/05/2015). Children have also been used as suicide bombers by armed groups (UNSC, 15/05/2015).
Sexual violence is underreported because of the social stigma attached to it and lack of access to Taliban-controlled areas. Between January 2014 and January 2015, UNAMA registered 44 cases (UN Security Council, 15/04/2015).
Mines and ERW
559km2 (4,321 hazardous areas) are contaminated by minefields and explosive remnants of war (ERW). In 2015, there has been an average of 103 total casualties per month from mines, IEDs and ERW (UNMAS/MAPA, 30/06/2015).
Central African Republic Country Analysis
24 July: The Attack Group of Fatima’s Church, a new armed group, claimed the 20 July abduction of three government officials (Journal de Bangui, 24/07/2015; Reuters, 21/07/2015).
21 July: CAR’s highest court overturned a decision by parliament to ban thousands of refugees from voting in October’s presidential election (Reuters).
21 July: The Democratic Front of the Central African People (FDPC) attacked a WFP food convoy escorted by MINUSCA, near Baboua, Nana-Mambere, killing one driver (Reuters, 21/07/2015; UN, 18/07/2015).
- More than 5,000 people have died in violence since December 2013 (Government, 16/09/2014; BBC, 07/01/2015).
- 2.7 million of 4.6 million people needed immediate assistance, half of them children (OCHA, 06/06/2015).
- 1.5 million people are in Crisis and Emergency phases of food insecurity (USAID, 13/03/2015).
- Only 55% of health facilities are functioning (WHO, 27/04/2015).
- 368,860 IDPs, including 30,190 in Bangui (UNHCR, 27/07/2015).
- 465,210 CAR refugees in neighbouring countries (UNHCR, 16/07/2015; 25/06/2015; 06/03/2015; 17/04/2015; 16/07/2015).
- 94,545 returnees in Nana-Grebizi, Ouham, Kemo and Ouham Pende.
Health, protection, food, and WASH are top priority needs, as continued violence, looting, and displacement cause further deterioration of an already dire humanitarian situation across the country. Violence between Muslim communities, perceived to have links with the ex-Seleka, and Christian communities, aligned with the anti-balaka militias, has resulted in displacement, targeted killings along communal lines, and human rights abuses.
Between 4 and 11 May, the Bangui Peace Forum took place. Moderated by President of Congo Denis Sassou Nguesso, 585 participants agreed on a 'Republican Pact for Peace', which sets the calendar for elections and revision of the constitution; a consensual disarmament model; the establishment of a criminal court; and an agenda of humanitarian and development priorities (BBC, 03/05/2015; Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 12/05/2015).
A constitutional referendum will be held on 4 October. The first round of presidential and legislative elections will take place on 18 October, and the second round on 22 November. (AFP, 19/06/2015). Voter registration will take place 26 June–27 July. International organisations condemned CAR’s transitional government after it rejected provisions in the draft electoral bill that would allow 190,000 eligible refugees to vote (UNHCR, 14/07/2015). CAR’s highest court overturned parliament’s decision (Reuters, 21/07/2015). The transition to the new government is meant to be complete by December 2015 (UNHCR, 25/06/2015).
Conflict began in late 2012, when Seleka fighters advanced from the north, taking control of territory on their way to the capital Bangui, where they held power until December 2013. Seleka committed numerous abuses during their advance and rule, and self-defence militias composed of mainly non-Muslims, ‘anti-balaka’, began revenge attacks in late 2013. Most ex-Seleka members withdrew to the north at the end of 2013, but fighting persisted between ex-Seleka and anti-balaka, Muslim and Christian communities, and pastoralists and farmers. In April 2015, the ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka agreed to a ceasefire. This was rejected by the transitional Government, just as it rejected an earlier ceasefire agreement (USAID, 10/04/2015).
African Union forces, MISCA, backed by France, were deployed in December 2013, authorised by the UN. The African Union had already deployed troops to CAR prior to Seleka’s assumption of power, but was overwhelmed by the severity and scope of the conflict. In mid-September 2014, the UN peacekeeping force took over operations under the name MINUSCA.
A transitional government was formed in August 2014. It was rejected by the ex-Seleka, which had proclaimed a de facto, independent, secular state in northeastern CAR in July (IRIN 23/09/2014; Government, 24/07/2014).
More than 1,820 security incidents have been recorded since January 2015 (OCHA, 12/05/2015). 265 security incidents were recorded in June, an increase compared to 249 in May and 252 in March (NGO Safety, 20/07/2015). More than 5,000 people have been killed since December 2013 (BBC, 07/01/2015).
MINUSCA and Sangaris have reinforced their presence in north-central CAR. Anti-balaka activity has increased on the border with Cameroon. The presence of Nigerian armed groups has been reported (UNHCR, 25/06/2015). Attacks against civilians have been reported in Ouandago (Nana-Grebizi), Kabo (Ouham), Batangafo (Ouham) and the Bouca–Batangafo (Ouham) route (UNHCR, 25/06/2015).
Activity of emerging armed groups has been reported. In Nana-Mambere, on the border with Cameroon, an increase in violence has been associated with the Front Démocratique du Peuple Centrafricain (Democratic Front of the Central African People, or FDPC), a splinter group from the Seleka (Reuters, 21/07/2015). Another armed group, The Attack Group of Fatima’s Church, has been active in Baboua, Nana-Mambere, claiming the 20 July abduction of three government officials (Journal de Bangui, 24/07/2015).
Priority areas for civilian protection are Ngaoundaye (Ouham-Pende), Markounda (border area) and Batangafo (Ouham), Bambari and Kouango (Ouaka), Boda (Lobaye), Gamboula, (Mambere-Kadei) and Mbres (Nana-Grebizi) (UNHCR, 15/05/2015).
Ex-Seleka: Seleka was an alliance of factions created in 2012 and dissolved by President Djotodia in late 2013. However, many fighters remained active, and were dubbed ‘ex-Seleka’. With the exception of 17,114 confined to three military camps in Bangui, most moved out of the capital and controlled much of central and northern CAR by January 2014 (IRIN, 17/09/2014). Bambari, Ouaka reportedly became the ex-Seleka headquarters in May 2014. Between 10 and 15 commanders oversee 1,500–3,750 soldiers each, including Muslims from the northeast, and Sudanese and Chadians (IRIN, 12/01/2015; international media, 30/09/2014; Enough, 17/06/2015).
Anti-balaka: The anti-balaka were formed in order to counter the Seleka; there are around 75,000 militants, though the numbers are contested, and their main leaders and political programme remain unknown (IRIN, 12/01/2015). After the coup and Djotodia’s resignation, many members of the former government army, the FACA, joined the anti-balaka. It is suspected that up to ten anti-balaka factions function in the vicinity of Bangui (IRIN, 12/02/2014).
LRA: Mbomou and Haut-Mbomou prefectures remain most affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army, which increased attacks as the political crisis left a power vacuum (OCHA, 10/11/2014).
UN peacekeeping mission (MINUSCA): MINUSCA officially took over operations on 14 September 2014, under a one-year mandate. In March 2015, the number of peacekeepers was increased by 1,000, to better protect infrastructure and senior officials in Bangui, bringing the total to 13,000 uniformed personnel (Reuters, 26/03/2015). On 28 April, the UN Security Council extended MINUSCA’s mandate by one year (UN, 28/04/2015).
French forces: On 19 May, the operation was formally handed over to MINUSCA (French Ministry of Defence, 22/05/2015). As of 21 May, 1,700 of 2,000 French troops were left in CAR (UN, 21/05/2015).
EU advisory mission: The EU launched the EU Military Advisory mission (EUMAM RCA) on 19 January, with the objective of reforming the security sector (Government, 16/03/2015).
US military assistance: The US is providing logistical support, special forces, and advisers to African troops operating against the LRA in eastern and southeastern CAR.
Bangui: Three unidentified armed individuals attacked the National Radio of CAR on 7 July, disarming and temporarily kidnapping one of the two Gendarmes on guard (UN, 07/07/2015).
Nana-Mambere: Late June, MINUSCA was dismantling an FDPC camp (Front démocratique du peuple centrafricain) in the prefecture. FDPC had been carrying out attacks on a main supply road (UN, 24/06/2015). FDPC was formed around a decade ago. It was part of Seleka in 2012, but has since come into conflict with other Seleka members.
Nana-Grebizi: 4,400 people fled armed attacks in Bissingale, Ndemayo, and Site-Nana for Kaga Bandoro town on 15 May. According to the UN, the attacks resulted in ten deaths (USAID, 12/06/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
2.7 million out of 4.6 million people need immediate assistance, half of them children. Humanitarian needs in CAR continue to exceed available resources and delivery of aid is expected to decline because funding remains low (OCHA, 06/06/2015). However, on 13 May, CAR was deactivated as a Level 3 emergency response (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Crime hinders the supply of humanitarian assistance outside Bangui. MINUSCA forces are organising patrols in Damara (Ombella-Mpoko), aiming to curtail crime in the region, including violent attacks, threats against aid workers, and roadblocks (OCHA, 28/05/2015). A rapid assessment on the Niango–Kaga Nze route, in Bamingui-Bangoran province, found that exactions, theft, and abuse were current in the region (Premiere Urgence – Aide Medicale International, 06/05/2015).
As of 15 May, more than 36,000 people are trapped and at risk of violence and abuse in seven enclaves countrywide: in Bangui’s PK5 (24,000), Boda (9,000), Bouar (1,600), Carnot (522), Berberati (456), Yaloke (316), and Dekoa (105). Most belong to religious and ethnic minorities and have limited access to basic services (OCHA, 28/05/2015; USAID, 12/06/2015).
The trapped Fulani population of Yaloke is being relocated to a new site. 109 said they would relocate to Cameroon (UNICEF, 09/07/2015).
Bangui: In PK5, shopkeepers have complained about extortion by ex-Seleka who ‘secure’ the neighbourhood against anti-balaka (AFP, 28/05/2015).
Security Incidents Affecting Aid Workers
232 acts of violence have been recorded against humanitarian organisations since January 2015 (OCHA, 12/05/2015). They include thefts of humanitarian assets and facilities as well as threats to staff (USAID, 27/04/2015). UN, NGO, and private vehicles are becoming regular targets on main roads (IOM, 02/02/2015).
18 humanitarian workers were killed and six wounded in 142 incidents in 2014 (OCHA, 04/12/2014; USAID, 19/12/2014).
Nana-Mambere: On 18 July, a WFP food convoy escorted by MINUSCA was attacked close to Baboua, killing one driver (UN, 18/07/2015). Several NGOs have temporarily suspended operations in the areas along Baboua-Besson and Baboua-Cantonnier roads in western Nana-Mambere due to insecurity. Nana-Mambere is becoming more and more inaccessible. Polio vaccination of over 16,000 children has been delayed in two subprefectures (OCHA, 08/06/2015).
The number of displaced decreased from 399,270 in May to 368,860 in July (UNHCR, 22/07/2015). The decrease in IDPs is due to improved security and a consistent presence of MINUSCA. Displacement, however, is still occurring in Ouham and Nana-Grebizi prefectures (OCHA, 21/06/2015). There are approximately 131,000 returnees in CAR, mainly in Ouham-Pende, Ouham, Kemo and Nana-Grebizi (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
Bangui: Relative improvements in security in some neighbourhoods outside Bangui have reduced IDP numbers in Bangui to 30,190 in 32 sites from 33,070 in May (UNHCR, 22/07/2015).
As of 27 July, the voluntary return and reintegration of persons from Mpoko site was ongoing (UNHCR, 27/07/2015; UNICEF, 09/07/2015). At end July 20,870 people (4,170 households), at Mpoko airport IDP site have been deregistered (UNHCR, 27/07/2015). A survey of all households previously found that 42% plan to resettle in new areas and 55% want to return to their place of origin (OCHA, 18/02/2015; USAID, 27/03/2015). 1,173 households have been registered in the 5th district of Bangui (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
Nana-Grebizi: Increased displacement has been recorded throughout the prefecture, with informal IDP sites being set up (UNHCR, 26/06/2015). After an attack in mid-May, 1,900 IDPs and 2,500 residents fled villages on the Dekoa route to the Evêché IDP site in Kaga Bandoro (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
Mambere-Kadei: Former IDPs are beginning to return to Berberati. 92 former IDPs returned and received one month’s assistance (OCHA, 15/07/2015).
Ouham: Increased displacement has been recorded throughout the prefecture with informal IDP sites being set up (UNHCR, 26/06/2015).
Ouaka: Ouaka hosted 57,000 IDPs at 12 March (OCHA, 18/03/2015). In Bambari, there are 9,870 IDPs in Sangaris IDP site; 2,614 IDPs in MINUSCA site; 8,790 at Notre Dame de la Victoire; 9,400 in the Muslim neighbourhood Hadji and Bornu; and 7,900 at Aerodome (UNICEF, 31/03/2015).
Refugees in CAR
8,260 refugees and asylum seekers from DRC, Chad, and Sudan are living in camps in Bangui, Bambari, and Zemio (UNHCR, 25/06/2015; 17/04/2015; OCHA; 29/04/2015).
Local sources report a return rate of 1,000 people per week from DRC to Kouango, Ouaka prefecture (OCHA CAR, 08/07/2015).
CAR Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
As of end June, there are 465,210 CAR refugees in neighbouring countries, including 810 registered in June (UNHCR, 16/07/2015; 25/06/2015). 247,600 are registered in Cameroon, 91,520 in Chad, 99,180 in DRC, and 28,170 in Congo (UNHCR, 16/07/2015).
The lean season has begun and a food security crisis is expected to last until September 2015, in particular for IDPs and some host communities. 1,280,000 people are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes (IPC, 15/07/2015; Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 20/05/2015; FEWSNET, 30/05/2015). Mbres and Bambari prefectures are those facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes, while Nana-Grebezi, Haute-Kotto, Ouham-Pende, Mambere Kadei, Ouaka, and six other prefectures are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security outcomes (IPC, 15/07/2015).
About 19% of people in rural areas are in Crisis and 12% in Emergency (OCHA, 28/05/2015). The most insecure are households headed by women, displaced people or returnees, and those without financial resources. Households in the north and northwest need assistance (FEWSNET, 01/04/2015). A rapid assessment concluded that 36% of households had inadequate food consumption in April compared to 26% in October (UNICEF, 09/07/2015).
Food assistance needs will remain the same as last year and will be higher than the five-year average (FEWSNET, 22/07/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
Food access is restrained by reduced food production, lack of livelihoods, and high food prices (OCHA, 18/12/2014; FAO, 26/01/2015). Food crop production in 2014 was 58% below average, as a result of insecurity, looting, and the killing of livestock (OCHA, 04/03/2015). Poor storage of seeds results in insect and fungi attacks, and poor germination (FAO, 19/06/2015). Food stocks in rural areas are 40–50% below average due to recurring raids.
Fish supply has fallen by 40% and cattle-breeding by 77% compared to pre-crisis levels, and insecurity and poor road conditions have disrupted market linkages and led to significant increases in food prices in 2014 (FAO, 26/01/2015; OCHA, 18/12/2014).
Health and Nutrition
As of December 2014, two million people need access to health services (OCHA, 19/11/2014; 22/12/2014). 55% of health facilities are functioning (WHO, 27/04/2015). Only 25% of those offering services have functioning sources of energy, and 21% have access to water (WHO, 31/12/2014).
There is a lack of access to health services in IDP sites and in the subprefectures of Mbres, Batangafo, and Kouango due to increased insecurity (OCHA, 29/04/2015). Deficiency in antiretroviral treatment is reported in Ouaka due to lack of access (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
Malaria remains the primary cause of mortality. 19,890 cases were reported between 4 May and 7 June (WHO, 30/04/2015; 30/06/2015). Funding shortages have brought an NGO to reduce activities by 60% in Paoua and Markounda subprefectures, Ouham, where almost 150,000 had received free malaria treatment (OCHA, 13/05/2015).
A measles outbreak has been reported in Birao, Vakaga prefecture: at least 51 cases were reported during the last week of June and three new cases in July (ECHO, 10/07/2015).
In April, seven cases of meningitis were reported in Batangafo (WHO, 30/06/2015).
Based on a national survey, the country has 6.5% severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (UNICEF, 08/01/2015). In 2015, 32,348 children will suffer from SAM and 78,355 from MAM (OCHA, 28/05/2015). From January to end March 2015, 6,500 children were admitted for treatment for SAM (UNICEF, 30/04/2015).
In 2014, 28,000 children were severely malnourished and 75,500 moderately malnourished (OCHA, 04/12/2014; 18/12/2014).
2.3 million people do not have access to improved safe water or improved sanitation (OCHA, 23/09/2014; 22/12/2014). 1.4 million people are targeted for WASH assistance in 2015 but lack of funding is a constraint on WASH infrastructure support (OCHA, 29/04/2015; 28/05/2015).
In Bambari, Sangaris IDP site has 6.8L of water/person/day; MINUSCA has 10L/person/day; Notre Dame de la Victoire 4.0L/person/day; and Muslim neighbourhoods have 2.2L/person/day (UNICEF, 31/03/2015).
IDP housing: Many displaced people are sleeping on the ground or in the open. Some are under pressure to leave camps, especially those living in school sites. Muslim IDPs face limited movement due to tensions with surrounding communities. IDPs with host families face lack of space and tensions. IDPs tend to move to rental housing after being in IDP sites or with host families but struggle to keep up with rent. Abandoned housing taken up by IDPs is mostly shelter left by Muslims, but only provides minimal protection after having been burned or pillaged. Finding shelter and temporary protection in the bush is another common option for IDPs (NRC, 12/2014).
Some returning IDPs find their homes destroyed or occupied. Disputes and tensions when IDPs relocate are a concern (NRC, 12/2014).
An assessment of schools noted that as of end April 2015, 78–88% are open (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). The situation varies across the country, with 25% functioning in Nana-Grebizi, 50% functioning in Ouaka, 63% in Sangha-Mbaere; 67% functioning in Vakaga and 71% in Ouham. Classes, however, are not regular due to insecurity and absence of teachers.
Student enrolment has improved by 31% since 2013-2014 but is still 6% below pre-crisis levels (2011-2012) (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). Only 6,000–10,000 children were enrolled in school 2012–2014 (IRIN, 12/01/2015). Over 1.4 million children are in need of education (OCHA, 22/12/2014).
In Bangui’s PK5 district, teachers have left due to insecurity, resulting in 60,000 school-aged children in need of safe learning spaces (USAID, 13/03/2015).
Only 10% of school-aged returnees in Debissaka village, Mbomou prefecture, are attending school due to security threats and attacks (ACTED, 22/04/2015).
Crimes against humanity and war crimes have been reported. Ex-Seleka are listed for child recruitment, killing, rape and other forms of sexual violence, and attacks on schools and/or hospitals. Anti-balaka are listed for child recruitment, and killing and maiming (Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, 04/11/2014). On 8 January, the UN Commission of Inquiry into human rights concluded that violence towards Muslims by anti-balaka in 2014 constitutes ethnic cleansing (Government, 20/01/2015).
15 months after being captured in Ombella-Mpoko, 11 Fulani, including the local head of anti-Balaka are still missing and no investigation has started (UN, 05/06/2015).
Refugees are at risk of statelessness because access to birth certificates is limited (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
20 peacekeepers were sent home following an event 10 July, where excessive force was used on four people, killing two. (Reuters, 09/07/2015).
The areas most at risk of sexual violence, and early and forced marriage, and with insufficient GBV response are: Bambari, Ouaka; Mbres and Kaga-Bandoro, Nana-Grebizi; Kabo and some villages in Nana-Mambere (OCHA, 28/05/2015). In conflict-afflicted areas, such as Nana-Grebizi prefecture, an increase in GBV has been reported, with 45 cases of rape reported in Kaga Bandoro alone between 4 May and 7 June. Between January and June, 280 rape cases were recorded; an average of 46 per month (UNICEF, 09/07/2015).
This is overall a regional decrease from the 150 cases reported in March and April in Bangui, Begoua (Bangui), Bimbo (Ombella-Mpoko), Yaloke (Ombella-Mpoko), Kaga Bandoro (Nana Grebizi), and Bambari (Ouaka), although many rape cases went unreported (WHO, 30/04/2015).
432 children were killed or maimed by violence in 2014 (OCHA, 04/12/2014).
The number of children recruited into armed groups has risen to 8,000–10,000, from 2,500 at the beginning of the crisis (The Guardian, 18/12/2014; OCHA, 02/04/2015). Eight major militia groups have agreed to free child soldiers and children used as cooks, messengers, or for sexual purposes (Reuters, 05/05/2015). More than 350 children were freed from armed groups on 14 May (AFP, 14/05/2015).
France is in the process of investigating allegations of child abuse by its peacekeeping forces that occurred between December 2013 and June 2014 (Reuters, 29/04/2015). UN peacekeepers from another country have been accused of sexually abusing street children in Bangui; an investigation is underway (Reuters, 23/06/2015).
Camp Beal, an ex-Seleka camp in Bangui, is in the process of being cleared of ammunition and explosives (UN, 06/07/2015).
Democratic Republic of Congo Country Analysis
20-23 July: There were 3 clashes between the FARDC and ADF militants. In one instance, FARDC soldiers were able to reclaim control of the Mutara valley (ACLED, 27/07/2015).
15 July: 11,000 IDPs arrived in Tchabi, Irumu, Orientale province after land disputes in a neighbouring community (OCHA, 22/07/2015).
15 July: A measles outbreak was declared in Maniema after 415 cases were recorded, with 29 cases in Kasongo health zone alone (OCHA, 22/07/2015).
- Internal conflict in the eastern provinces of Orientale, North Kivu, South Kivu, and Katanga.
- 7 million people need humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
- 2.6 million IDPs (OCHA, 01/06/2015; 17/06/2015).
- Over 2 million children under five are suffering from acute malnutrition (Radio Okapi, 04/11/2014).
- 7.3 million school-aged children are not attending school (Radio Okapi, 10/03/2015).
Needs are highest in the conflict-affected regions of North Kivu, South Kivu, Katanga, and Orientale, where there is large-scale, repeated displacement. IDPs, host populations, and those unable to flee are all vulnerable, as insecurity poses multiple protection risks and prevents access to basic services. Needs vary according to geographic area and conflict dynamics.
Political violence and inter-communal strife have persisted for decades, influenced by longstanding tensions with DRC’s eastern neighbours. Operations by DRC armed forces and UN peacekeepers and infighting between armed groups disrupt security and stability.
National Political Context
Attempts to prolong the President’s term beyond the two-term limit were met with violent protests in September and then January. Although Parliament voted against the legislation, there are doubts regarding the scheduling of elections (AFP, 27/09/2014; 25/01/2015). In March and April, activists promoting political participation were arrested (Reuters, 16/04/2015). Parliamentarians are convening in special session from 4 July until 2 August to allow elections to be held in October 2015 (AFP, 03/07/2015).
At least 40 armed groups are operating in the east of the country (ECHO, 22/10/2014). They range from local militias set up initially as self-defence groups (among them many Mayi-Mayi groups), to secessionist groups, and forces first set up by fighters from Uganda (LRA and ADF/NALU), Rwanda (FDLR) and Burundi (FNL). The UN has a peacekeeping mission (MONUSCO), and an EU mission providing assistance to security sector reform (EUSEC) was extended until 30 June 2015 (EU, 25/09/2014). The UN and the Government are discussing withdrawal of the UN mission (Radio Okapi, 06/04/2015).
Recent efforts to demobilise armed groups are ongoing. In Goma, North Kivu, a 75 militants have arrived in a camp. On 20 July, 130 arrived in Munigi camp, including 26 child soldiers (UN, 18/07/2015).
Front of Patriotic Resistance in Ituri (FRPI) was set up in November 2002 from among the Ngiti ethnic group (TRAC). Attacks increased in Irumu territory, Orientale, in 2015, after a failed disarmament programme at the end of 2014 (OCHA, 19/04/2015). The FRPI was reportedly neutralised by the FARDC and MONUSCO in late June. 35 died, 52 were wounded and 36 captured alive in three weeks of operations (AFP, 24/06/2015).
Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) are mainly Hutu Rwandans who were allegedly linked to the genocide. An estimated 1,400 fighters are active, primarily in the Kivu region (Reuters, 22/03/2015).
Mayi-Mayi: At least 20 Mayi-Mayi groups, formed by local leaders along ethnic lines, are active in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Katanga. The number of fighters can range from 100 to 1,000 (AFP 2013).
Allied Democratic Forces/National Army for the Liberation of Uganda (ADF/NALU) is a Muslim militant group founded in the 1990s. MONUSCO and the FARDC launched an operation in North Kivu to neutralise the group in January 2015 (Radio Okapi, 07/01/2015). ADF activity decreased in January, but by early February attacks against villages in Beni territory had increased (AFP, 04/02/2015; 20/03/2015).
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) was founded by Joseph Kony in Uganda in 1987 and spread to South Sudan, then to DRC and CAR (IRIN).
National Liberation Forces (FNL) are Burundian militants based in South Kivu (AFP 2013).
The armed forces of the DRC (FARDC) comprise 120,000–130,000 fighters (Defence Web, 2013). Seven army and police officers were banned from receiving MONUSCO support in March 2015 because they pose a risk of committing human rights violations (Reuters, 11/03/2015).
The UN Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO) is made up of almost 18,000 troops, as well as military observers and police units (OCHA, 19/04/2015). The initial mission, MONUC, was established after the 1999 peace agreement between DRC and five regional states. In March 2014 its mandate was expanded, with the creation of an Intervention Brigade, charged with neutralising armed groups (RFI, 20/10/2014). MONUSCO’s mandate was extended for another year in March 2015, although its force was cut by 2,000 troops (Reuters, 26/03/2015; AFP, 26/03/2015).
2.29 million people in North Kivu are affected by armed conflict (OCHA, 02/06/2015). FARDC began an offensive on the FDLR in February, and renewed its offensive on the ADF on 19 July (Radio Okapi, 20/07/2015; AFP, 26/02/2015). 2,960 incidents have been recorded in the first half of 2015, including 519 incidents in June, an increase of 497 in May (International NGO Safety Organization, 20/07/2015). Over 400 people have died through ADF attacks in the past nine months (AFP, 15/07/2015).
Beni territory: 300 people have been killed by ADF militants in Beni territory in the past five months (Radio Okapi, 16/07/2015. An ADF attack on the night of 23 July left several buildings burned and 3 women dead (AFP, 24/07/2015). Another ADF attack was recorded in Beni on FARDC positions. On 20 July, FARDC soldiers took control of the Mutara valley (ACLED, 27/07/2015). FARDC began an offensive against ADF on 19 July (Radio Okapi, 20/07/2015). ADF attacked Kaluka village on 15 July: seven people were killed (Radio Okapi, 16/07/2015). In May, around 80 people were killed, and people left a dozen villages, asked by authorities to move towards FARDC positions and the towns of Oicha and Beni.
Lubero: A clash broke out on 25 May in a transit camp for ex-FDLR combatants in Kanyabayonga. Four people were injured (Radio Okapi, 25/05/2015). The security situation in Banmate, Itala, Bunzoa, Ikobo villages, which lie between Lubero and Walikale territories, is tense due to FDLR attacks (Radio Okapi, 18/05/2015).
Masisi: Five people were killed in an attack on Goma airport in the night of 1–2 June, by suspected ADF (international media, 03/06/2015). 30 people have been arrested (international media, 08/06/2015).
Walikale: Four civilians were killed in clashes between two Mayi-Mayi factions on 2 June in Nsindo. Thousands reportedly fled their homes (Radio Okapi, 04/06/2015).
In Lulingu, Shabunda territory, clashes have been ongoing since mid-May between FARDC and Mayi-Mayi Raiya Mutomboki. Economic activity has ceased, and schools and other basic infrastructure are not functioning. An unknown number of people have left the town, and flights to the region have been suspended (OCHA, 27/05/2015). On 15 June, the Mayi-Mayi Mutomboki kidnapped 28 persons, including 11 women (OCHA, 09/07/215). Incidents have been reported in south Fizi territory since May. 8,000 people fled to north Katanga and east Maniema after Mayi-Mayi attacks (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
On 16 July, FRPI attacked a spontaneous IDP camp in Katorogo, Bunia. This is the ninth attack on an IDP site in 2015 and the second in one week (OCHA, 22/07/2015). An INGO vehicle was attacked south of Bunia on 13 July. 35 people died, 52 were wounded and 36 captured alive in three weeks of FARDC–MONUSCO operations in June (AFP, 24/06/2015). On 8 June, 30 people were abducted in Dungu-centre, reportedly by LRA. 12 were released after FARDC intervention (local media, 12/06/2015).
112 violent disputes were recorded in Djugu, Mahagi and Irumu territories from January to May (OCHA, 22/07/2015).
Since early 2015, Katanga’s triangle of death (Pweto, Manono, and Moba territories) has experienced a decrease in Mayi-Mayi attacks (Radio Okapi, 17/03/2015), but Luba (Bantus) and pygmies (Batwa) have frequently clashed in Kalemie, Manono, and Nyunzu territories (OCHA, 08/04/2015). In Nyunzu territory, conflict between Luba and pygmies has killed 200 people since January 2015; 60 women have been raped. 113 villages have been burned (Radio Okapi, 03/06/2015). Four people have been killed in clashes in Kitutwa, Manono territory (Radio Okapi, 03/06/2015). On 1 May, pygmy militants burned 28 Luba homes in Kazala locality, Manono, and later clashes killed eight and injured 30 (local media, 07/05/2015). Luba burned several shelters in an IDP camp in May. Women and children are now hosted in a warehouse (ECHO, 05/05/2015; OCHA, 06/05/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
7 million people need humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
The mountainous and volcanic terrain, and lack of tarred roads, limit access across DRC, and access worsens during the rainy season. Insecurity is a major constraint in the east.
North Kivu: There were two attacks on humanitarian organisations in Rutshuru and Walikale territories between 18 and 21 June (OCHA, 23/06/2015). Organisations had already suspended activities along the Oicha–Eringeti route north of Beni (Radio Okapi, 23/05/2015). Some 275,000 IDPs are hard to access due to insecurity (OCHA, 30/04/2015). Commercial flights are not serving the area and roads are inaccessible (local media, 09/06/2015).
South Kivu: 40% of the roads in South Kivu are impassable (OCHA, 29/05/2015). Traffic has been suspended on the Bukavu–Goma road since 7 June, after a bridge over the Kitalima River collapsed. Armed groups were stealing goods from stranded trucks (local media, 09/06/2015). An increasing number of insecurity incidents have been reported on the route between Bitale and Hombo (Kalehe territory) (OCHA, 10/06/2015). Humanitarian and commercial flights to Lulingu, Shabunda territory, have been suspended due to insecurity (OCHA, 31/05/2015). Two NGOs have temporarily suspended activities (OCHA, 10/06/2015). In Lulingu, movement restrictions due to armed activity are preventing women from accessing their crops (OCHA, 09/07/2015).
Equateur: The dry season makes passage on the Ubangi River challenging – it is impossible in the wet season – almost cutting the region off completely (AFP, 19/07/2015).
Katanga: In Malemba-Nkulu territory, humanitarian assistance in restricted due to poor roads, especially during the rainy season (OCHA, 30/04/2015). Insecurity has prevented humanitarian actors from accessing Lulingu, where people are in dire need of assistance (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Orientale: Humanitarian organisations have slowed their activities in the south of Irumu territory (Bunia, Gety, Aveba and Bukiring) due to insecurity (OCHA, 03/06/2015). Since 16 May, five NGOs have suspended humanitarian activities (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Security Incidents Affecting Aid Workers
From January to end March, 37 incidents against humanitarian actors were recorded nationwide (OCHA, 30/04/2015). But 35 incidents against humanitarians were reported in North Kivu alone over 14–30 April (OCHA, 30/04/2015). Humanitarian agencies are reporting an increase in kidnapping, robbery and extortion cases in North Kivu’s Rutshuru and Walikale territories (USAID, 15/04/2015).
On 12–13 June a landslide in Mbuse and Laingba, in Ituri territory, Orientale, caused at least 26 deaths and 10 injuries. 500 homes were damaged, leaving people in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 24/06/2015).
There are 2.8 million IDPs in DRC. The country also hosts 225,020 refugees from CAR, Rwanda, Burundi and Angola (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
At end April, there were 2.8 million IDPs in DRC, including 121,000 displaced between January and March 2015 (OCHA, 30/04/2015). 80% of IDPs are hosted by families and communities who are already facing chronic food insecurity and limited access to services and livelihood opportunities (FAO, 20/11/2014). Displacement can be short-term, but repetitive, depending on the security threats in the regions.
North Kivu hosts 604,560 IDPs as of 25 June, compared to 570,260 in May. Part of the 6% increase is due to a quality control check (UNHCR, 14/07/2015; OCHA, 17/06/2015). 26,880 were newly displaced in June due to violence in Beni, Rutshuru, and Walikale territory (UNHCR, 14/07/2015).
67% live with host families and 33% in IDP sites (OCHA, 15/07/2015). 25% are in Lubero territory, 24% in Beni, and 23% in Masisi (OCHA, 15/07/2015). 57 sites in North Kivu host more than 201,600 people, mainly from Rutshuru and Masisi (IOM, UNHCR and others, 25/05/2015). Near Goma, four sites remain open, hosting more than 16,000 IDPs (ECHO, 29/05/2015). Buhimba and Nzulo IDP sites closed in May. Most people relocated to Masisi, Nyirangongo, and Rutshuru territories (OCHA, 31/05/2015).
275,360 IDPs returned home in the last 18 months (UNHCR, 14/07/2015).
Beni: There are 152,270 people displaced in Beni as of 25 June, compared to 145,190 in May (OCHA, 15/07/2015). 24,000 people were displaced in early May in the north (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
Lubero: 127,630 people are displaced in Lubero as of 24 June, 20,860 fewer than in May (UNHCR, 15/07/2015).
Walikale: There are 76,030 IDPs in Walikale as of 25 June, 16,310 more than in May (UNCHR, 15/07/2015). Hundreds of households are seeking refuge in Walikale centre, Kibua, Mpofi, Pinga, and at the border with Lubero territory. They are staying with host families, and lack food, clothes, and access to healthcare (Radio Okapi, 06/06/2015).1,800 people were displaced in Ntoto due to clashes between Raiya Mutomboki factions. An assessment shows families are hosting up to 15 people and most people left without personal effects (OCHA, 23/06/2015). Misau and Muna localities in Ihana have been abandoned since 24 June due to clashes between factions of the Nduma Defense of Congo (NDC), also known as the Mayi Mayi Cheka. The population has fled to Kibua and Pinga (Radio Okapi, 27/06/2015).
At 30 June, 317,960 IDPs were in South Kivu, compared to 661,400 at end March. The 53% decrease in number is due to a purging of data that is awaiting verification (OCHA, 10/07/2015). 11,150 people were displaced between April and June, compared to 34,120 in the previous quarter. Most have been displaced by clashes between the FARDC and armed groups in Kalehe territory (OCHA, 10/07/2015). At 31 March, there were 209,600 returnees over the previous 18 months (OCHA, 10/06/2015). More than 39,000 people were displaced towards Lulingu in May and June due to insecurity (OCHA, 09/07/2015). 89% of IDPs are with host families, 3% in sites and 8% in shelters (OCHA, 10/07/2015).
As of end March, there were 550,490 IDPs in Orientale province (OCHA, 19/02/2015; 30/04/2015). Around 389,230 people are displaced in Ituri district (OCHA, 22/05/2015).
An ADF attack on 14–15 July displaced 11,000 people from Kakuku, Beni territory, North Kivu, to Tchabi, Irumu territory (OCHA, 22/07/2015). During the week of 13 July, clashes over land displaced 3,000 people from the villages of Musekere and Linga in Djugu territory. They are in Mokambo, Ituri district (OCHA, 22/07/2015).
From mid-April to mid-May, 13,400 people were displaced in Irumu and Bondo territory due to ADF and LRA attacks (OCHA, 27/05/2015; 22/05/2015).
More than 1,600 IDPs arrived in Mambasa, Ituri territory, between end May and early June, fleeing Mayi-Mayi clashes (OCHA, 24/06/2015).
Katanga hosts 460,600 IDPs, including 46,000 displaced between February and April (OCHA, 19/02/2015; 15/04/2015; 21/04/2015; 29/06/2015). 73% are living with host families and 27% in IDP sites (OCHA, 21/04/2015). Clashes between Luba and pygmies has displaced 212,000, including 79,770 between January and April 2015 (OCHA, 29/06/2015).
8,000 people have fled to Katanga and eastern Maniema following Mayi-Mayi attacks (OCHA, 10/06/2015). In Mufunga, Mitwaba territory, 1,500 IDPs need humanitarian assistance. Most live with host families who were IDPs until recently and also lack resources (OCHA, 02/07/2015).
60% of the 4,700 IDPs in Cotanga camp returned to their villages at the end of May. Dire conditions in the camp, insecurity, and hostility from the host population could be reasons for their return (OCHA, 27/05/2015). More than 74,000 former IDPs are in need of reintegration assistance (OCHA, 02/07/2015).
Maniema hosts 181,520 IDPs as of 30 March (OCHA, 21/04/2015). 23,440 IDPs were in camps in Kabambare territory in May. The host population is 9,440 (OCHA, 26/05/2015). 5,000 people have been displaced in Kasongo territory following intercommunal violence (OCHA, 22/07/2015). More than 12,000 IDPs from Missi, fleeing Mayi-Mayi attacks, were in urgent need of humanitarian assistance in Babuyu in June. More than 20 attacks on IDPs have been recorded, raising concerns of ethnic tensions between the host and displaced populations (local media, 12/06/2015)
As of 30 March, there were 1,200 returnees since January 2015 (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
17,000 IDPs are without assistance in Walendu Bini. They are in need of food, shelter and NFIs, having fled clashes between the FARDC and the FRPI (Radio Okapi, 18/06/2015).
Refugees in DRC
DRC hosts more than 225,020 refugees (UNHCR, 28/02/2015; USAID, 15/04/2015; OCHA, 30/04/2015). DRC provincial authorities insist that assistance should only be delivered within camps, making it difficult to support refugees in host communities.
From CAR: As of 25 June, there were 98,280 CAR refugees in DRC (UNHCR, 25/06/2015). As of 15 May, 4,158 were registered in Bili camp (UNHCR, 15/05/2015). In Mboti camp, 20 of 31 students have dropped out of secondary school (UNHCR, 25/06/2015).
From Rwanda: DRC is hosting 117,300 Rwandan refugees (UNHCR, 28/02/2015; 30/10/2014; UN 30/12/2014).
From Burundi: As of 22 July, 13,600 new Burundian refugees have arrived in DRC (UNHCR, 22/07/2015). The majority are in South Kivu, 500 are in Katanga and 60 are in Maniema (WFP, 15/07/2015). More than 50% are living with host families and 6,970 have been transferred to Lusenda site in Fizi territory (UNHCR, 22/07/2015; 08/07/2015; WFP, 19/06/2015). FDLR presence in hosting areas is a concern (UNHCR, 05/06/2015; OCHA, 27/05/2015). Prior to the recent influx, there were 9,000 Burundian refugees in DRC (OCHA, 27/05/2015). The Government will grant temporary status to the new Burundian refugees (OCHA, 15/06/2015).
From Angola: There are 560 Angolan refugees registered in DRC. Another 28,000 are undergoing voluntary repatriation: as of 23 April, at least 15,520 Angolan refugees had returned from the DRC (UNHCR, 28/02/2015; Government, 30/04/2015).
Angola: Between 1 January and May, 29,881 DRC citizens were deported from Angola (Soyo and Cabinda provinces) (OCHA, 04/06/2015). Over 16-30 May, about 14,000 DRC nationals were expelled from Angola (Radio Okapi, 17/06/2015).
Burundi: 325 DRC refugees previously in Burundi have returned to Uvira territory (OCHA, 23/04/2015).
DRC Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
There are around 442,440 DRC refugees in neighbouring countries, mainly in Uganda (178,220), Rwanda (73,560), Burundi (53,860), Tanzania (55,870), Congo (23,450), Kenya (15,630), South Sudan (14,630), and CAR (5,340) (UNHCR, 31/03/2015; 17/02/2015; 01/01/2015; 31/12/2014). Since January, more than 4,500 people have fled to Uganda from eastern DRC (ACT Alliance, 05/06/2015).
6.6 million people are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes as a result of armed group activity, inter-communal violence, and displacement (OCHA, 30/04/2015; Integrated Food Security Phase Classification, 28/01/2015; USAID, 15/04/2015). Ituri (Orientale), Boende (Equateur), Punia (Maniema), Shabunda (South Kivu), Manono, Mitwaba and Pweto (Katanga) are all in Emergency phase (Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 22/05/2015).
It is estimated that food production is currently 20–40% below national consumption (USAID, 21/07/2015).
Maniema: More than 21,000 households (151,200 people) face food insecurity following a fungus in crops in Kibombo territory. The region’s production of cassava, rice and banana has decreased by 62%, 73%, and 91%, respectively. More than 3,000 hectares of rice crops have been damaged (OCHA, 21/04/2015). In December 2014, Kibombo territory was in Crisis food insecurity (OCHA, 26/05/2015).
Health and Nutrition
23,000 people in Masisi territory, North Kivu, do not have access to health services (OCHA, 11/02/2015). More than 17,500 IDPs and their hosts in north Beni, North Kivu, need health assistance (OCHA, 14/04/2015).
In South Kivu, 60% of the population in Uvira, Fizi, and Walungu territories do not have healthcare (OCHA, 29/06/2015). IDPs are slowly returning, even though basic services are not functioning. In the five health zones (Lulingu, Tchonka, Milenda, Tchampundu, Lolo), there is a lack of medical stocks, especially rape kits (OCHA, 09/07/2015).
In Orientale, the health situation at Dungu, Haut-Uele, has worsened since MEDAIR and MSF left in 2014: health coverage has decreased from 85% in 2014 to 43.5% in 2015. Since May 2015, the frequency of routine vaccination is not met in 10 health facilities in the area, due to a lack of oil, which is used as fuel for cool vaccine storage (OCHA, 22/07/2015). 29 cases of meningitis and one death were reported over 4–10 May (OCHA, 27/05/2015). The same period saw 26,332 cases of malaria and 55 deaths (OCHA, 03/06/2015). 140 health facilities in Bunia are functioning, but without trained health personnel and without adequate medicine (Radio Okapi, 30/06/2015).
In Maniema, GAM is 10% and SAM 2%, with Kailo and Kabambare territories most affected (OCHA, 31/05/2015).
In Katanga, 15,000 measles cases were reported between 1 January and end June; 50% more than for the same period in 2014 (OCHA, 02/07/2015). 250 people have died (Radio Okapi, 08/07/2015). Non-vaccinated children are one reason for the rise in measles cases (OCHA, 02/07/2015). 12 health zones are affected. Malemba health zone, Malemba-Nkulu territory, is the worst affected with an average of 1,500 cases per week (OCHA, 31/05/2015). Some 16,000 more cases have been reported in other parts of the country (OCHA, 31/05/2015). A fire in a hospital in Pweto, in Katanga, on 23 June destroyed medical supplies including vaccines against polio and measles (Radio Okapi, 24/06/2015).
A measles epidemic was declared in Maniema province on 15 July. 415 cases have been recorded, including 295 in Kasongo health zone (OCHA, 22/07/2015).
In Orientale, 2,115 cases of measles, including three deaths, have been reported January—May (OCHA, 22/07/2015).
6,870 cases of cholera, including 68 deaths, were recorded from January to 28 June, compared to 9,660 for the same period in 2014 (UNICEF, 27/07/2015). Katanga and South Kivu are most affected: 35% of all cases (2,170) had been recorded in Katanga as of 17 May, including 38 deaths (OCHA, 25/05/2015).
In North Kivu, an increase in cholera cases (more than 30) has been reported in Nkassa and Kailenge, Pinga region, Walikale territory (OCHA, 02/06/2015). In Orientale province, 126 cases of cholera, including eight deaths, were recorded in Gety health zone 23-31 May (OCHA, 24/06/2015).
Four individuals died and 22 others were affected by diarrhoea in Lubutu health zone, Maniema territory, South Kivu; it is still uncertain if this is cholera (Radio Okapi, 08/07/2015).
In 2014, there were 22,200 cases of cholera and 372 deaths (WHO, 31/12/2014; UNICEF, 24/12/2014).
Equateur: Inke and Mole refugee camps, Equateur, provide an average of 10.5L of water per person per day, significantly below standards (UNHCR, 15/05/2015).
North Kivu: An estimated 4.3 million people require WASH assistance in North Kivu, including 5,000 IDPs in Bwalanda, Kashilira and Kikuiku sites in Rutshuru territory, where there is a lack of WASH actors (OCHA, 20/05/2015).
Maniema: Only 40% of the population of Maniema has access to safe water (OCHA, 02/04/2015).
Orientale: 12,600 IDPs in Badengayido, Orientale, lack access to WASH because the Congolese Institute for Nature Conservation (ICCN) has opposed it (OCHA, 15/07/2015).
In N’sele commune, Kinshasa, 376,000 people have limited access to safe water (Radio Okapi, 18/06/2015).
21,000 IDPs from North Kivu are in need of shelter in Komanda, Orientale (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
A fire in Kalonda II IDP site, Maniema, South Kivu, on 7 July destroyed 300 homes. Witnesses report that pastoralists set the fire (OCHA, 08/07/2015).
7.3 million children aged 5–17 – 28% of the school-aged population – are not attending school (Radio Okapi, 10/03/2015).
One million children are in need of education in North Kivu (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
In South Kivu, on average, 12,300 students cannot access schools every month, due to conflict and natural disasters (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
In Katanga, more than 85% of the 2,000 school-aged children in Kasanga Nyemba, Kalemie territory, are not attending school (OCHA, 22/04/2015). A school was burned in Garenganze, Manono territory, following clashes between Luba and pygmies. 4,600 students are affected (Radio Okapi, 17/05/2015). More than 30 schools in Kaumulu, Malemba-Nkulu territory, have been closed since March 2015 due to clashes between the Mayi-Mayi and the FARDC (Radio Okapi, 20/05/2015).
Some 3,000 students in Aveba, Ituri district in Orientale, risk not being able to take their final exams in June due to insecurity (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
Among refugees from CAR, about 75% of school-age children living in refugee camps (12,256) are not going to school due to lack of infrastructure and teachers (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Military, militias, and other armed groups are accused of abuse of civilians, including arbitrary arrest, extortion, looting, child conscription, sexual violence, and executions.
In Orientale, 12,300 protection incidents against civilians were reported in 2014, compared to 4,800 in 2013 (OCHA, 04/02/2015). In Haut-Uele district, 485 incidents were reported in the first three weeks of May 2015 (OCHA, 27/05/2015). In May, 935 protection incidents were registered in Ituri district, compared to 1,983 in April (OCHA, 03/06/2015). An NGO report determined that 40% of Orientale’s surface contains mines (Radio Okapi, 04/04/2015).
207 children left armed groups in Orientale province January–June 2015 (OCHA, 22/07/2015). 26 child solders surrendered in North Kivu on 20 July (UN, 18/07/2015).
Sexual violence has been a common element of warfare by the armed groups and soldiers in eastern DRC since the breakout of war in the early 1990s. 127 women reported being sexually abused after an attack by dozens of armed men in Kikamba town, South Kivu on 1 May (MSF, 15/05/2015).
Orientale: 90% of the 2,900 SGBV cases reported in Orientale in 2014 occurred in Ituri territory, the others in Uele territory (OCHA, 08/04/2015; 19/04/2015). In Haut-Uele district, 110 SGBV incidents were reported in the first three weeks of May, and 138 in April (OCHA, 27/05/2015). On 10 May, 26 women were raped by FRPI in Apihinji and Mbulumbulu localities (OCHA, 22/05/2015).
Katanga: There were more than 600 cases of SGBV reported From January–March in Katanga. 50% came from Nyunzu territory (OCHA, 22/04/2015).
1,680 SGBV cases were reported in 2014 in Katanga and 840 in Kasai-Occidental (OCHA, 05/02/2015; Radio Okapi, 11/02/2015). 2,012 were reported in Orientale province, and 1,123 in Bas-Congo (OCHA, 10/12/2014, 03/12/2014; Radio Okapi, 27/11/2014).
No new significant developments this week, 27/07/2015. Last update: 10/06/2015.
- 1.2 million people, including 696,000 children under 18, are in need of humanitarian assistance (UNICEF, 15/01/2015).
- Over 60% of the Eritrean population was reported as undernourished between 2011 and 2013 (WFP).
- Torture, arbitrary detention, and indefinite national service are the grave human right concerns reported in Eritrea (UNHRC).
- Ongoing human rights abuses prompt thousands of Eritreans to flee the country every year. In March 2015, Ethiopia was hosting 133, 348 Eritrean refugees (OCHA, 20/04/2015).
- Operations and maintenance of established humanitarian systems remain a significant challenge (UNICEF, 15/01/2015).
Eritrea is a one-party state governed by President Isaias Afwerk and his party People’s Front for Democracy and Justice. No national elections have been held since Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia in 1993.
Humanitarian Context and Needs
1.2 million people need humanitarian assistance, including 696,000 children under 18 (UNICEF, 15/01/2015). There is a lack of updated and reliable data on the humanitarian situation due to limited humanitarian access.
Providing direct humanitarian assistance remains a challenge due to limited access, and absence of assessments and humanitarian space (ECHO).
As of May 2015, there were 2,802 Somali refugees in Eritrea (UNHCR, 22/05/2015).
Eritrean Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
The entire Eritrean refugee population is estimated to constitute more than 321, 000 people (Guardian, 21/04/2015). UN estimates that some 4,000 Eritreans, among them hundreds of unaccompanied minors, are fleeing the country every month to escape government repression and lack of basic freedoms. Eritreans constitute the second biggest group of migrants arriving in Italy by boat, after Syrians (Reuters, 24/03/2015). In 2014, more than 37,000 Eritrean refugees sought refuge in Europe, the vast majority arriving by boat across the Mediterranean (UNHCR). The high proportion of unaccompanied minors who cross from Eritrea to Ethiopia is a priority concern (UNHCR).
Ethiopia: At the end of June, there were 139,039 Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia (UNHCR, 30/06/2015), mainly settled in four camps in the northern Tigray and Afar regions (UNICEF, 21/04/2015). Arrival rates spiked towards the end of 2014, with a total of 33,000 arriving by the end of the year (UNHCR, 09/02/2015). The influx has resulted in shortages of shelter in the camps (OCHA, 26/01/2015).
Sudan: Sudan reportedly hosts at least 114,500 Eritrean refugees (UNHCR).
Djibouti: As of 1 January, there were 1,240 Eritrean refugees in Djibouti (UNHCR, 30/01/2015).
Kenya: As of 30 June, there were 1,583 Eritrean refugees in Kenya; the majority located in Nairobi (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
A delayed onset and lack of rainfall has resulted in abnormal dryness across western Eritrea (FEWSNET, 24/07/2015). Very poor rainfall since February, including extremely sporadic rain since mid-March, has led to drought conditions in eastern Eritrea (FEWSNET, 30/05/2015).
It is estimated that Eritrea produces only 60% of the food it needs, and markets appear to be dysfunctional. These two factors suggest that a significant part of the population may be in need of food assistance. Due to extensive national service, farmers are routinely absent during harvest periods (Economist, 10/03/2014). In addition, local food and fuel prices are likely to be high, putting severe pressure on household coping mechanisms. The Government officially denies any food shortages within its borders and refuses food aid (ECHO).
Health and Nutrition
According to FAO in 2013, over 60% of the Eritrean population was reported to be undernourished between 2011 and 2013.
According to a June 2015 report by the UN Human Rights Council, grave human rights violations are widespread. Eritreans are deprived of fundamental freedoms by the authorities, and are routinely and arbitrarily arrested, detained, and tortured. Disappearances or extrajudicial executions were also reported (UNHRC, 04/06/2015). Eritreans are subject to systems of national service and forced labour in which individuals are effectively detained indefinitely (UNHRC, 04/06/2015).
Mines and ERW
UNICEF reported in January 2015 that landmines and ERWs continue to have a serious impact on the population, including causing deaths, injuries and disabilities. Humanitarian mine action programmes in the country have been scaled down because of limited access (UNICEF, 15/01/2015).
Iraq Country Analysis
26 July: Rising temperatures have led to critical WASH needs for displaced people and populations in conflict areas (OCHA).
26 July: Humanitarian access in Salah al Din is severely restrained (OCHA).
22 July: Two bombings in Bayaa and Al Shaab districts in Baghdad killed 21 and wounded 46 (AFP).
21 July: A bombing in Mandali in Diyala killed at least four (AFP).
21 July: Two Islamic State (IS) attacks targeting Shi’ite militia in Baghdad killed 23 and wounded 53 (AFP).
20 July: At least 10 were killed and 16 wounded in attacks in Hudaid village in Diyala governorate. 13 people have been reportedly kidnapped in the area a few days before, including a Sunni tribal leader (Reuters, 20/07/2015).
- Around 1,470 deaths recorded in June, including around 665 civilians, an increase on May. 12,000 people were killed in 2014, corresponding to the worst levels of violence since 2006–2007 (UNAMI, 01/07/2015; 01/01/2015).
- 8.6 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance, including more than 3.2 million in host communities (OCHA, 26/07/2015).
- Access continues to be severely constrained in large parts of Anbar, Salah al Din, Diyala, Kirkuk, and Ninewa (OCHA, 26/07/2015).
- 251,500 registered Syrian refugees are in Iraq; 64% are women and children (UNHCR, 15/07/2015).
- Protection is a key concern, particularly in areas directly affected by conflict and under IS control.
The IS insurgency has compounded an already fragile political and humanitarian situation, leading to a level 3 humanitarian crisis and international military intervention. Iraq now hosts one of the largest internally displaced populations in the world. Priority needs are food, water, shelter, fuel, and access to healthcare. Access constraints and human rights violations, particularly in IS-controlled areas, are of major concern.
National Political Context
The perceived marginalisation of Sunni groups by former President Maliki’s Government is considered one of the main drivers of the current conflict. A unity government, led by President Abadi, was formed in September 2014, and a plan for national reconciliation is under consultation (UNAMI, 22/07/2015). While trying to balance sectarian tensions inside the country, Abadi has been seeking to garner international support for the fight against Islamic State (IS), including from neighbouring Sunni Arab states (Foreign Affairs, 16/01/2015).
Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KR-I)
Masoud Barzani’s Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) have ruled the autonomous KR-I through a coalition government since 2005. Barzani’s term has been extended to August 2015, a move denounced as illegal by the opposition. A budget agreement between Baghdad and Erbil around oil revenues was incorporated into Iraq’s 2015 national budget law late January, but differences persist over the interpretation of the agreement (UN, 13/07/2015; local media, 26/04/2015).
Around 1,470 Iraqis were killed and 1,690 injured in acts of violence in June, including 665 civilians killed and 1,030 injured, an increase on May. Baghdad was the most affected, with 974 casualties (UNAMI, 01/07/2015). At least 12,000 people were killed and more than 23,000 injured in 2014, in the worst violence since 2006–2007. Casualty numbers are hard to verify in conflict areas (UNAMI, 01/01/2015).
Islamic State (IS): In June 2014, IS declared the establishment of a Sunni caliphate, covering the area between Aleppo in northern Syria and Diyala in eastern Iraq. Abu Bakr al Baghdadi was declared caliph and leader for Muslims worldwide. IS now controls nearly 300,000km2 of territory in Syria and Iraq (AFP, 01/06/2015). It has attracted more than 20,000 foreign fighters (ICSR, 21/01/2015; NBC, 02/2015).
Government forces: Iraqi Security Forces (ISF), made up of around 48,000 troops, are involved in offensives around Baghdad, and in central governorates (Foreign Policy, 28/03/2015). Falling global oil prices have led to significant budget deficits, hampering the government’s capacity to undertake military operations and finance basic services for affected populations (Deutsche Welle, 11/06/2015).
Shi’a militias: Three militias have been supporting government forces on all major fronts against IS since the beginning of the insurgency, as part of the Popular Mobilisation Forces (PMF): Asa’ib, Kita’ib Hezbollah, and the Badr Brigades. PMF number around 100,000 fighters, including 30,000 reportedly backed by the Iranian Government (Al Jazeera, 23/01/2015).
KR-I Forces: The Kurdish Peshmerga, supported by Kurdish fighters from Syria and Turkey, are engaged in a counteroffensive against IS. Kurdish fighters receive training and equipment from multiple countries, including the United States (AFP).
International Involvement: In August 2014, US forces started airstrikes on IS locations. On 15 September, 30 additional countries pledged to help Iraq fight IS. Iran has dispatched members of its elite Revolutionary Guard and reportedly carried out airstrikes against IS (The Economist, 03/01/2015; The Guardian, 05/01/2015, 04/12/2014).
IS has intensified its attacks against ISF and associated militias in northern and western Iraq since June, especially in Anbar, Kirkuk, Diyala and Salah al Din (ISW, 06/07/2015). ISF and Peshmerga forces had regained territory in early 2015, recapturing populated areas of Diyala in January, and Al Baghdadi in Anbar early March (AFP, 26/01/2015; 08/03/2015). Peshmerga forces are fighting IS in Kirkuk.
Anbar: Falluja has become a primary objective for Iraqi forces and associated militias in Anbar, and an operation was launched on 5 July (ISW, 10/07/2015). Airstrikes and armed clashes continue along the Ramadi–Falluja corridor (OCHA, 26/07/2015). IS captured Ramadi on 17 May, killing at least 500 people; ISF was still surrounding the city as of 10 July, and is trying to cut IS supply lines (ISW, 10/07/2015).
Baghdad has seen an increase in attacks in July. Two bombings in Bayaa and Al Shaab districts killed 21 and wounded 46 on 22 July (AFP, 22/07/2015). Two IS attacks targeting Shi’ite militia in al Jadida and Zafaraniya districts killed 23 and wounded 53 on 21 July (AFP, 22/07/2015). A series of bomb explosions killed at least 21 and wounded 62 in Shi’ite-dominated neighbourhoods of Baghdad on 12 July (AFP, 12/07/2015). Two bombings killed 11 people and wounded at least 27 on 4 July (Reuters, 04/07/2015).
Diyala: A bombing in Mandali killed at least four on 21 July (AFP, 22/07/2015). At least 10 were killed and 16 wounded in attacks in Hudaid village on 20 July. 13 people have been reportedly kidnapped in the area a few days before, including a Sunni tribal leader (Reuters, 20/07/2015). An IS attack targeting Shi’ite militias in Khan Bani Saad killed at least 90 people and wounded 120 on 17 July, as people were celebrating the end of Ramadan (AFP, 18/07/2015). An IS explosion targeting Shi’ite militias in Khalis killed five and wounded 11 on 14 July (AFP, 14/07/2015).
Kirkuk: ISF asked residents to leave Al Riyadh subdistrict on 2 July, ahead of military operations (ECHO, 03/07/2015). Peshmerga and Popular Mobilisation Forces began operations to dislodge IS from areas of southwestern Kirkuk in February (ISW, 18/03/2015). This cooperation is significant (ISW, 13/03/2015; Ekurd Daily, 17/02/2015; The Daily Beast, 17/02/2015).
Ninewa: IS continues to carry out security operations south of Mosul, to control resistance and safeguard one of its most important areas of control (ISW, 06/07/2015).
Salah al Din: An attack in Touz district killed 12 and wounded 45, mostly Shi’ites, on 25 July (Reuters, 25/07/2015). Coordinated IS suicide bombings near Baiji killed 11 and wounded 27 on 13 June (AFP, 13/06/2015). IS was expelled from areas around Baiji oil refinery after intense clashes in May and June, but maintains control over supply routes from unliberated areas to Mosul and other areas in northern Iraq (UN, 13/07/2015; ISW, 08/05/2015). By end March, Iraqi forces and supporters had reportedly recaptured Albu Ajil, Tal Ksaiba, Al Alam, Al Dour, and Tikrit from IS (local media, 31/03/2015; WSJ, 13/02/2015; Al Jazeera, 08/03/2015). Tensions then rose between government forces and allied militias (Reuters, 04/04/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
As of end July, 8.6 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance, compared to 5.2 million end February; the number is projected to reach 9.9 million by end 2015 (OCHA, 26/07/2015; OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015; UNICEF, 28/02/2015).
Access to the estimated 5.1 million people in areas under armed opposition groups’ control is limited (IOM, 10/06/2015). Several INGOs have suspended activities in IS-controlled areas, or provide emergency assistance through local partners. High insecurity and UXO also hinder access, as do long delays in obtaining clearance from Iraqi authorities (OCHA, 05/12/2014). Limited storage capacity is reported, especially in central governorates (WFP/Logistics Cluster, 07/07/2015).
Border crossings: The Ibrahim Khalil border crossing has been closed to Syrians from Kobane since 2 March; most refugees have entered via the Peshkabour crossing (UNHCR, 15/03/2015). Insecurity prevents most civilian movement at the IS-controlled Al Qa’im and Al Waleed crossings, as well as at Rabia (Reuters, 23/11/2014; UNHCR, 28/02/2015; 15/01/2015).
IDP movement restrictions: New IDPs from Anbar face serious restrictions accessing neighbouring provinces: Kerbala is closed to them; Baghdad, Babylon, Kirkuk and Diyala have implemented strict security policies: access across Bzibz bridge to enter Baghdad, in particular, remains unpredictable; IDPs attempting to enter KR-I by land require a local guarantor. 55 families are stranded at Daquq checkpoint (for entry to Kirkuk governorate) as of 14 July, and are in urgent need of assistance (OCHA, 26/07/2015; 14/07/2015; UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Anbar remains largely inaccessible (UNICEF, 03/06/2015). Tens of thousands of people are reportedly trapped in Falluja and Ramadi districts due to ongoing military operations; IS is preventing civilians from leaving Falluja, with an increasing number of checkpoints reported in the area (OCHA, 14/07/2015). Control of the roads towards Al Baghdadi continues to shift between ISF and IS, which has delayed transportation of food and medical supplies to both Al Baghdadi (including Al Obaidy refugee camp) and Haditha districts (OCHA, 28/04/2015). Only three UN agencies and eight national and international organisations are operating in Anbar, along with government ministries (OCHA, 14/07/2015).
Diyala: UN staff members were abducted by unidentified gunmen end April (UN, 08/05/2015).
Ninewa: Access to Mosul is impossible for humanitarian actors and communications with areas outside the city are allegedly cut off. Conditions have dramatically deteriorated since IS took control (OCHA, 02/03/2015; WFP, 02/02/2015).
Salah al Din: Humanitarian presence remains limited. Roads are only usable from the south through Baghdad and Samarra. Abductions of people on their way from Kirkuk to Tikrit have been reported. IEDs are a concern for returnees to recaptured areas (OCHA, 26/07/2015; 14/07/2015).
There are more than 3.1 million IDPs, 3.2 million people in host communities who are affected, and 251,500 Syrian refugees (OCHA, 26/07/2015).
As of 2 July, there are more than 3,112,000 IDPs in 3,613 locations. 28% are in KR-I (865,730) including 430,790 in Dahuk and 272,560 in Erbil. Anbar hosts 552,470 IDPs, Baghdad 526,360, and Kirkuk 281,700. 67% of IDPs are living in private settings, 21% in critical shelter arrangements (mainly in Anbar and Salah al Din), and 8% in 102 IDP camps, mainly in KR-I (IOM, 25/07/2015; UNHCR/CCCM, 16/07/2015). 35% of IDPs in critical shelter arrangements are under 15 years of age (IOM, 30/06/2015). The number and spread of IDPs pose a major challenge to needs assessment and assistance (IOM, 02/12/2014).
Anbar: More than 78,300 people have been displaced from Saqlawiyah in Falluja district since 8 July (OCHA, 26/07/2015). More than 300,000 people are believed to have been displaced from and within Anbar since operations began on 8 April, including 154,180 from Ramadi district over 15 May–23 June (IOM, 15/07/2015). Of those displaced since April, 43% went to Baghdad, 14% to Erbil and 33% stayed in Anbar. A high concentration of IDPs are in Falluja district and Khaldiya subdistrict in Ramadi. Ramadi displaced are in need of health, shelter, food and NFI support (IOM, 15/07/2015; WHO, 07/06/2015). Many civilians have not been able to flee to safer areas due to ad hoc entry restrictions and insecurity (NRC, 21/05/2015).
Salah al Din: Nearly 20,450 people were displaced in Samarra, Tikrit, Balad, and Dujail districts due to conflict 14–30 June (IOM, 15/07/2015). Populations have begun returning to Tikrit and Alam, where the cities’ local police force and militia are keeping order (local media, 23/06/2015). Around 98,000 returnees to Tikrit since April need NFIs and shelter repair support (OCHA, 04/07/2015; 23/06/2015). Dour and Albu Ajil, where many people supported IS, remain empty (local media, 23/06/2015).
900,000 IDP returnees are in need of assistance throughout Iraq (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015).
Between 27 March and 2 July, 246,774 IDPs returned to their place of origin, including 37% to Salah al Din, 25% to Ninewa, 23% to Diyala, and 13% to Anbar. A 37% increase in the number of returnees was reported between 4 June and 2 July, with Baghdad, Salah al Din and Kirkuk experiencing the highest increases. 16% are in critical shelter arrangements (IOM, 15/07/2015). Heavily disrupted basic services and infrastructure, mines, insecurity, and lost documentation all increase the risks for returnees (UNHCR, 15/04/2015).
Refugees in Iraq
As of 15 July, 251,500 Syrian refugees were registered in Iraq, including 30,380 who arrived in 2015; 43% are female, and 42% children. KR-I hosts an estimated 97%, with 113,307 in Erbil, 99,566 in Dahuk and 30,305 in Sulaymaniyah; 4,512 were last known to be in Anbar and 1,575 in Ninewa (UNHCR, 15/07/2015). Arrivals through the Peshkhabour border crossing have significantly decreased in June, with only 174 arrivals in a month, compared to 100 per week in May (UNHCR, 09/07/2015; 25/05/2015).
38% of refugees live in nine camps; over half of these are in Domiz camp in Dahuk (47,320), 10,160 in Kawergosk, and 10,290 in Darashakran in Erbil (UNHCR, 15/07/2015). The number of Syrian refugees in Al Obaidy camp, in IS-controlled Al Qa’im in Anbar significantly decreased January–March, to 851; access constraints make it difficult to fully understand the situation (UNHCR, 15/03/2015, 04/03/2015).
As of end May, nearly 7,060 Syrian refugees have returned to Syria in 2015. Reasons for return include high living cost in the KR-I, lack of job opportunities and family reunification (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
There are 41,700 non-Syrian refugees (UNHCR, 23/04/2015).
Iraqi Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
Around 180,000 Iraqi refugees are thought to be residing in neighbouring countries, mostly in Turkey and Jordan (UNHCR, 04/06/2015).
4.4 million people need food assistance (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015). Food security is deteriorating, particularly for IDPs and people living in unfinished housing or camps. In a May assessment, 16% of IDP households had poor or borderline food consumption, compared to 3% of non-displaced households (WFP, 26/06/2015). One-third of new IDPs in Anbar have borderline food consumption (WFP, 01/06/2015).
The October–November 2014 and April–May 2015 agricultural seasons were significantly affected by conflict, especially in major producing areas such as Salah al Din, Ninewa, and Anbar; government seed distributions were delayed end 2014, impacting planting (FAO, 27/05/2015). Below-average wheat production is expected in 2015 (OCHA, 14/07/2015). IS controls major wheat storage silos in Ninewa and Salah al Din (FAO, 10/02/2015).
3.4 million people are in need of emergency livelihood support, compared to 800,000 end February (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015; UN, 18/02/2015). IDPs’ financial conditions are deteriorating, and unemployment is rising in IS-controlled areas (UNHCR, 15/03/2015; OCHA, 02/03/2015). In conflict-affected areas, casual labour opportunities are limited and wage rates are low (WFP, 11/03/2015).
Food prices are high in Anbar, Ninewa, Kirkuk, Salah al Din, and Dahuk due to conflict and blocked supply lines. As of June, prices in Anbar were 58% higher than in Baghdad (WFP, 01/06/2015). Government support via the Public Distribution Centre is limited in conflict areas; 80% of households reported having received no rations in April (WFP, 01/06/2015; FAO, 27/05/2015).
Refugees: Refugees are resorting to more negative coping mechanisms in Dahuk due to high food prices (UNHCR, 15/04/2015). Sustainable job opportunities are still severely limited. As of February, only 5% of refugees targeted for access to wage employment in 2015 had been reached (DRC/UNDP, 28/02/2015).
Health and Nutrition
More than 7.8 million people need health support, including 6.9 million in critical need (WHO, 04/06/2015).
At least 14 major hospitals and more than 170 other health facilities are non-functional or destroyed, while functioning facilities are overburdened. 45% of health staff have been displaced. Key concerns include: the lack of specialised services; recurrent shortages of essential medicines and other supplies, especially in Anbar, Salah al Din, and Ninewa; disruption of treatment for patients with chronic illnesses; mental health support, and the risk posed by communicable diseases (WHO, 04/06/2015). Low vaccination coverage in Najaf is a concern (WHO, 28/06/2015).
Diarrhoea and respiratory infections have been gradually increasing since end May due to high temperatures. Acute diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, and scabies remain the most common illnesses among refugees and IDPs in camps (WHO/Government, 28/06/2015).
Anbar: Critical shortages of essential medicines are reported by functioning health structures (ECHO, 16/02/2015). Most health facilities in Khaljdiya are reported closed since the departure of health workers in June (WHO, 07/06/2015). Ramadi’s main hospital came under IS control on 16 May, and the city hospital in Hit district is no longer accessible for civilians (OCHA, 17/05/2015; 05/05/2015). Shortages of fuel have affected healthcare delivery. Increased acute illnesses and chronic diseases are reported from Al Baghdadi district, while health concerns are rising in Habbaniya and Abu Ghraib district due to inadequate sanitation (OCHA, 26/05/2015; 15/05/2015).
Ninewa: The majority of health facilities in Sinjar remained closed end June due to infrastructure damage, and lack of staff and medical equipment (WHO, 28/06/2015).
Salah al Din: None of the three hospitals in Tikrit were functioning end April (WHO, 27/04/2015).
Refugees: 20% of the non-camp population has difficulty accessing health services, due to cost and perceived availability (WHO/UNHCR, 28/02/2015). Access to specialised primary services, including mental healthcare and control of communicable diseases, remain priorities in camps (UNHCR, 15/05/2015).
As of July, 966 measles cases have been recorded in 2015, compared to 493 and 563 during the same periods in 2013 and 2014. Most cases are in Baghdad and Babylon (WHO, 15/07/2015).
7.1 million people need WASH support, including 4.1 million in critical need (OCHA, 14/07/2015). Rising temperatures are aggravating the already critical water access problem in areas affected by conflict or controlled by armed groups (OCHA, 26/07/2015; WHO, 01/02/2015).
The rater of water flow in the Euphrates River has more than halved since IS took control of the dams in Ramadi and Falluja in Anbar early June. This is threatening access to drinking water in Anbar and in Kerbala, Babylon, Najaf, and Qadisiyah (WHO, 28/06/2015).
Urgent WASH support is required for at least 9,600 IDPs in sites in Abu Ghraib, Karkh, and Mahmoudiya districts in Baghdad, as well as for 3,300 IDPs in sites and at Bzbiz bridge in Anbar; shortage of fuel and chlorine is reported in Falluja, undermining efficient water supplies to displaced populations (OCHA, 14/07/2015).
Refugees: Transition to safe water supply and sanitation in Qushtapa, Kawergosk, Darashakran, and Basirma camps is ongoing, but challenged by funding. In Basirma, the latrine ratio is 23:1, while garbage collection remains an issue in camps in Erbil (UNICEF/UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Shelter and NFIs
Around 2.9 million people require shelter and NFI support, mainly in non-camp settings in central and southern Iraq (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015). IDPs in critical shelter arrangements are of highest concern (IOM, 30/06/2015). 13 camps are under construction for an additional capacity of 327,154 people (UNHCR/CCCM, 16/07/2015).
New IDPs from Anbar are living in overcrowded conditions in Habbaniya and Falluja, without access to clean water and proper sanitation (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Many people outside Al Hwesh IDP camp in Salah al Din, which reached full capacity, are in urgent need of shelter (OCHA, 16/06/2015). Arbat IDP camp in Sulaymaniyah hosts 13,000 people instead of the planned 4,800: access to basic services is of major concern; close to 3,700 people have been relocated to the new Ashti IDP camp, and an additional 2,500 will be relocated in August (OCHA, 14/07/2015).
Refugees: Refugees in Erbil and Dahuk are seeking to move to camps, due to increasing cost of living, limited employment prospects, and high rents (UNHCR, 31/05/2015). 26% of shelters in refugee camps in KRI are unimproved (Government/UNHCR, 31/05/2015). Basirma, Kawergosk, Akre, Darashakran, and Domiz camps’ capacities are exhausted; overcrowding in Erbil is an increasing concern (Government/UNHCR, 31/05/2014). In Sulaymaniyah, refugees renting houses are facing eviction due to pressure on accommodation (UNHCR, 15/03/2015).
More than three million children did not attend the full 2014/2015 school year, including more than 650,000 who have received no schooling at all (UN, 30/06/2015). 45% of school-aged IDP children in camps are enrolled in schools, compared to only 30% of those out of camps (Education Cluster, 10/06/2015). Challenges include lack of teachers, and schools operating on several shifts to accommodate increasing demand (OCHA, 04/07/2015).
Refugees: 53% of school-aged refugee children are attending school (UNHCR, 25/06/2015). Challenges include limited capacity in schools with an Arabic curriculum, shortages of Syrian teachers, increasing demand for schooling, and insecurity (UNHCR, 31/12/2014; 12/02/2015). Syrian refugee teachers have been unpaid since at least April, due to KR-I’s limited budget (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Over eight million people are in need of protection support (OCHA, 14/07/2015).
IS has committed targeted attacks, killings, torture, rape, forced religious conversion, and child conscription. Sharia courts have been established in IS-controlled territories, carrying out extreme punishments against men, women, and children (UN, 19/03/2015; 20/01/2015). As many as 3,000–3,500 people, predominantly from the Yezidi community and other ethnic and religious groups, remain in IS captivity (UN, 13/07/2015). ISF and associated militias have allegedly carried out looting, killing, torture, and abduction during their counter-offensives against IS (Reuters, 04/04/2015; 21/03/2015; Amnesty, 02/04/2015).
Lack of documentation among IDPs is a key concern, especially as it is a prerequisite for residency permits and difficult to obtain outside a person’s area of origin: many children born in displacement lack birth registration, while up to 50% of IDP families are reportedly missing at least one important personal identity document (OCHA, 14/07/2015). There are reports of IDPs from Diyala and Kirkuk having their documentation confiscated and being forced to return to their province of origin (OCHA, 04/07/2015).
Refugees: Refugees are in need of targeted registration and documentation support. Residency in urban areas is being denied to Syrian asylum-seekers lacking original ID documents (UNFPA, 31/03/2015; Protection Cluster 15/01/2015). Many of the 37,500 Syrian refugee children aged 0–4 lack birth registration documents because their parents do not have any (UNHCR, 25/05/2015).
Accurate numbers of women and girls affected by abuse across Iraq are hard to obtain. Reports show an increase in sexual violence, abduction, trafficking, and forced recruitment of women. IS reportedly carried out systematic sexual violence against Yezidi women and girls in northern Iraq (HRW, 15/04/2015).
Around 2.4 million children are living in the most affected governorates of Iraq. Grave violations against children, including sexual violence, maiming, and forced recruitment, are prominent (UNHCR/Protection Cluster, 20/06/2015). IS has reportedly sold children as sex slaves, is using minors as suicide bombers, and providing military training to schoolchildren in Syria and Iraq (AFP, 08/06/2015; OCHA, 06/02/2015). The group also abducted 400 children in Anbar during the last week of May (OCHA, 31/05/2015).
ERW and Mines
The Government estimates more than 1,730km² of land is contaminated by landmines and UXO. IS is reportedly planting more (MAG, 07/2015).
Nigeria Country Analysis
23 July: Boko Haram (BH) is reported to be holding five local government areas in Borno and Yobe states (AFP).
20 July: So far in July, more than 500 people have been killed in confirmed and suspected BH attacks; more than half of all deaths were reported in Borno state (AFP).
- Around 6,740 deaths from Boko Haram-related violence in 2015 as of mid-July. 7,711 deaths from Boko Haram-related violence were reported in 2014 (ACLED, 11/07/2015; 11/01/2015).
- 4.6 million people in need of humanitarian aid, including 1.4 million IDPs (OCHA, 05/06/2015; IOM, 30/06/2015).
- 3.5 million people are expected to be in need of emergency food assistance between July and September (FEWSNET, 25/06/2015).
- 1.5 million are in need of nutrition assistance, including 461,000 children under five suffering from SAM (OCHA, 05/06/2015).
- 2.2 million people are in need of WASH assistance; 1 million in need of shelter and NFIs; 2.2 million in need of protection; and 3.5 million people in need of healthcare (OCHA, 06/2015).
Violence has displaced close to 1.6 million people, restricted movement, disrupted food supply, seriously hindered access to basic services, and limited agricultural activities. People affected by violence in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe, and neighbouring Bauchi, Taraba, and Gombe states are in urgent need of protection, shelter, food, and access to health services and education.
Muhammadu Buhari was sworn in as President on 29 May, succeeding Goodluck Jonathan, whose party had led the country since 1999. Buhari is a former president and military ruler from northern Nigeria (local media, 29/05/2015; AFP, 02/04/2015).
Between January and mid-July 2015, around 6,740 fatalities were reported in more than 320 violent events with confirmed or suspected BH involvement in northeastern states. The same period in 2014 saw around 220 incidents, with almost 4,000 fatalities. As of 11 July, 69 suicide attacks have been recorded in 2015, compared to 38 in all of 2014 (ACLED, 11/07/2015). Boko Haram’s (BH) insurgency in the northeast began to gain momentum in 2014, when 7,711 deaths were reported (ACLED, 11/01/2015).
Since the end of 2014, the conflict with Boko Haram has taken on a more regional dimension, with attacks in Cameroon, Chad, and Niger, and a strengthened multinational force. With the engagement of regional forces, the Nigerian Government regained territory in early 2015, but insurgent attacks have since increased in the northeast (UNHCR, 22/05/2015).
In the Middle Belt area (Benue, Kaduna, Plateau, Nassarawa, and Taraba states), inter-communal clashes flare regularly, fuelled by ethnic and religious tensions, as well as competition between farmers and pastoralists (IDMC, 12/2014).
Boko Haram (BH)
Boko Haram (“Western education is forbidden”) has been leading an insurgency to create an Islamic state in the predominantly Muslim regions of northeastern Nigeria. The Nigerian authorities have been fighting BH since 2009. Precise BH troop numbers are not known, but estimated at around 15,000 (Amnesty, 13/04/2015). In March, BH pledged allegiance to Islamic State (AFP, 07/03/2015).
Reports of low morale and defections persist among Nigerian forces. Failures to act on intelligence and abuse during the campaign against BH are also a problem, impacting relations with the civilian population (ACLED, 31/03/2015). In the past, Nigerian soldiers at times reportedly refused to deploy, or fled from operations (AFP, 22/08/2014).
The Multinational Joint Task Force (MJTF) has reached 8,700 military and civilian personnel, including contingents from Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria (BBC, 03/03/2015). The scope and remit of the regional force is unclear. Failure to maintain control over liberated towns, such as Gamboru and Marte in Borno state in March and April, have suggested coordination problems. The force is headed by a Nigerian commander (AFP, 11/06/2015; 25/04/2015; 20/03/2015).
The renewed military offensives of early 2015 and territorial gains by regional forces (36 towns recaptured in Borno) have prompted BH to revert to guerrilla tactics including village raids, abductions, bombings and suicide attacks, increasingly targeting civilians (AFP, 23/03/2015; US Institute of Peace, 09/01/2015). BH has increased the number and the range of attacks since March–April, including in areas not previously targeted, such as Yola and Bauchi (INGO Forum, 17/07/2015). BH is reported to be holding five local government areas in Borno and Yobe states (AFP, 23/07/2015).
Between December 2014 and June 2015, OCHA reported 162 BH-related incidents and 3,750 fatalities, February being the deadliest month with 987 deaths in 47 incidents (OCHA, 18/06/2015; 30/06/2015). Others reported more than 320 incidents and 6,740 deaths between January and mid-July 2015 (ACLED, 11/07/2015).
Since 29 May, when President Buhari assumed office, more than 700 people have been killed in the northeast (AFP, 17/07/2015). More than 200 people were killed in Borno state in June alone, and violence has escalated since early July. Other states that have reported BH attacks in July include Yobe, Gombe, Plateau, and Kaduna. Adamawa, which is among the three most affected states, has not reported any BH attacks since early June. The national army claims to have killed more than 600 insurgents (AFP, 05/07/2015).
BH attacks tend to follow a similar pattern, with houses set on fire, food and cattle seized, and a number of villagers killed. The attacks often lead to the displacement of residents. In July, more than 500 people were killed in confirmed and suspected BH attacks (AFP, 20/07/2015).
Borno state: On 24 July, at least 25 people were killed in suspected BH attacks on three villages in south Borno, close to Sambisa Forest (AFP, 25/07/2015). On 23 July, eight people were killed in a raid on Pompomari village, close to Maiduguri (AFP, 23/07/2015). On 21 July, suspected BH raided Buratai village, home to an army chief. After the attack, there was a failed suicide attack at a military checkpoint in Biu town, 25km away (AFP, 23/07/2015). In the first two weeks of July, around 300 people were killed in in suicide arracks and raids on villages (AFP, 15/07/2015; 14/07/2015; 11/07/2015; 10/07/2015; 07/07/2015; 04/07/2015; 03/07/2015; 02/07/2015; Die Welle, 13/07/2015).
Yobe state: On 26 July, a suspected BH suicide bombing in Damaturu killed 19 people and injured 47. On 20 July, three police were killed at a checkpoint on the outskirts of the city (Reuters, 27/07/2015). Earlier in July, three suicide bombings in Damaturu killed at least 13 people (AFP, 17/07/2015). Six people were killed in a bomb blast outside of Damaturu on 20 July, at a checkpoint on the main road to Maiduguri (AFP, 20/07/2015). On 5 July, five people were killed in a suicide attack on a church in Potiskum city (AFP, 05/07/2015).
Gombe state: On 22 July, 42 people died in bomb blasts at two bus stations in Gombe (AFP, 22/07/2015). On 16 July, a twin bomb blast at a market in Gombe city killed 49 people and injured 71 (AFP, 16/07/2015; 17/07/2015).
Plateau state: Two explosions occurred on 5 July in Jos city. The first in a restaurant, the second was a suicide attack on a mosque. Accounts of casualties vary between 44 and 51, and between 47 and 61 wounded. There was no claim of responsibility, although BH has targeted Jos city in the past (AFP, 05/07/2015; BBC, 06/07/2015; CTV News, 06/07/2015).
Kaduna state: At least 25 people were killed in a bomb blast in a government building in Zaria on 7 July. 32 were injured. No group has claimed the attack, but BH has previously targeted the city (AFP, 07/07/2015).
Reports of inter-communal violence in the Middle Belt have decreased in recent months. On 18 June, eight farmers were killed in Wukari district of Taraba state (AFP, 18/06/2015). In May and April, at least 46 people were killed in inter-communal violence; 118 people were killed in March. Involved communities mainly include Fulani, Ologba, and Egba (AFP, 26/05/2015; 19/04/2015; 17/03/2015; ECHO, 17/03/2015). In 2014, around 1,700 people died in inter-communal violence (ACLED, 2014; ICG, 01/10/2014).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Some 9.7 million people, including IDPs, are staying in 34 areas worst affected by the insurgency. The entire population of northeast Nigeria – 24.5 million people – is indirectly affected; 4.6 million are in need of humanitarian aid (OCHA, 30/04/2015; 09/07/2015). The situation is compounded by limited international presence in the area. An estimated 2.3 million people do not have access to humanitarian aid and are in critical need of assistance (INGO Forum, 17/07/2015).
The security situation in the northeast continues to impair access to affected populations. Almost daily attacks on communities since the beginning of the year have resulted in an absence of humanitarian actors in the region. Those who are present have difficulty accessing populations and assessing the extent of needs in remote areas (ACF, 30/06/2015). Humanitarian assistance is very limited in remote areas that are or were formerly under BH control (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
In Borno state, many domestic flights have been cancelled and fuel stations are running out of petrol (BBC, 25/05/2015).
Media access has also often been prohibited, with BH having destroyed communication and media infrastructure (Reporters without Borders, 05/02/2015). Infrastructure damage reaches 80% in some areas controlled by BH (IRIN, 05/06/2015).
Around 1.6 million Nigerians have been displaced by conflict, including nearly 1.4 million internally and 203,000 abroad. 57% of IDPs are children.
As of June, nearly 1.4 million IDPs have been identified in Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe states, compared to 1.5 million in April. More than 200,000 people have returned in Adamawa state, but further displacement continues (IOM, 30/06/2015).
The majority of IDPs have been displaced for several months or longer (INGO Forum, 17/07/2015). Most basic needs are not covered, and IDPs are mainly relying on their own limited resources, charity of private individuals, and harmful coping mechanisms. The priority is food security, followed by protection and livelihood support (INGO Forum, 19/06/2015; ECHO, 25/06/2015). 27% of registered IDPs are not receiving any assistance. This proportion is higher among IDPs living with host families (40%) than those in IDP sites (11%).
More than 1.2 million are staying with host families, the remaining are staying in 42 camps and camp-like sites (IOM, 30/06/2015).
95% of IDPs were displaced by the insurgency, and 5% by communal clashes. About 75% were displaced in 2014, and 23% in 2015. 56% of IDPs are children; half are under five. More than one million are in Borno, which is also the state of origin for 80% of IDPs. 125,484 are in Yobe (9%) and 113,437 in Adamawa (8%). People displaced by inter-communal violence are mostly in Taraba and Bauchi states (IOM, 30/06/2015).
Most IDPs are not yet returning home, citing a lack of security and livelihood opportunities. Many cannot return to their original homes, due to destruction of infrastructure and houses (INGO Forum, 19/06/2015). There are 223,141 returning IDPs in northern Adamawa state (OCHA, 09/07/2015). They are in urgent need of shelter, food, health, and education. Concerns remain over mines, IEDs and UXO in areas of return (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
As of May, there were 2,190 refugees and asylum seekers in Nigeria (UNHCR, 27/05/2015).
Nigerian Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
There are around 200,000 Nigerian refugees in neighbouring countries. 74,000 are in Cameroon, 64,000 in Niger, and 14,900 in Chad (UN, 12/06/2015; 18/06/2015).
4.6 million people are estimated food insecure. A food security Emergency (IPC Phase 4) is expected in worst-affected areas in the northeast from July–September (OCHA, 09/07/2015; FEWSNET, 25/06/2015).
3.5 million people are expected to be in need of food assistance in the northeast between July and September. Eastern Yobe, central and eastern Borno, northern Adamawa, and IDP settlements are worst affected, with at least two million people expected to face Emergency food security outcomes (OCHA, 08/06/2015; FEWSNET, 25/06/2015). Markets remain significantly disrupted in the Lake Chad region, due to insecurity (FEWSNET, 31/05/2015).
Lack of access to IDPs for food distribution, mostly in urban areas, is a concern (FEWSNET, 20/05/2015). Lack of access to food has been reported in 11 out of 42 displacement sites. Borno state is most affected, with 10 sites lacking access to food (IOM, 30/06/2015).
Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity is expected for most households outside the northeast through at least September (FEWSNET, 11/05/2015).
Agriculture and Livelihoods
Communities in northeastern rural areas largely depend on farming for their livelihoods. But families returning from displacement will not be able to support themselves, as staple crops have not been planted (INGO Forum, 17/07/2015). Insecurity prevents those who remain in the northeast from carrying out typical farming activities. Forecasts for the 2015 rainy season (May–September) are poor and the main harvest in October is expected to be well below average for a third consecutive year (FEWSNET, 25/06/2015).
Boko Haram enforces rigid movement restrictions and some limitations on trade, negatively impacting people’s ability to obtain food and gain a livelihood, and limiting food availability on markets (Amnesty, 13/04/2015; FEWSNET, 25/06/2015).
Health and Nutrition
3.5 million people need health support (OCHA, 09/07/2015). Mortality rates are increasing and vaccination programmes severely hit, with polio vaccination campaigns limited to Maiduguri.
Urgent health and nutrition support is needed in the newly opened Dalori camp in Maiduguri (OCHA, 08/06/2015; UNICEF, 01/06/2015). 75 health facilities had been destroyed in Borno state as of May. Half of the local government areas have access to health care facilities (USAID, 17/06/2015).
Most IDPs in host communities have limited access to health services (OCHA, 02/10/2014). 3,000 health facilities in the northeast are closed or have been partially destroyed (OCHA, 08/10/2014).
Malaria is the most prevalent health problem among IDPs in camps (IOM, 30/06/2015).
By end of June, 2,316 cholera cases had been reported in 2015 in 13 of 16 states, with 121 deaths. Anambra, Kano, Rivers, and Ebonyi states are worst affected. Although the number of cases is significantly lower than the 24,195 over the same period in 2014, the case fatality rate has risen to 5.2%. Case numbers had been fluctuating between 0 and 60 per week since the peak of the outbreak in mid-March, but increased to 100 new cases in the last week of June (IFRC, 09/06/2015; 22/07/2015; UNICEF, 27/07/2015).
Displacement from areas affected by the outbreak is increasing the risk of cholera spreading towards the border with Niger (OCHA, 30/06/2015).
1.5 million children and pregnant and lactating women are expected to suffer from acute malnutrition in 2015. 32% are estimated to be children suffering from SAM (OCHA, 09/07/2015). Around 100,000 children in camps are thought to be suffering from SAM (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
In May, GAM in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe IDP camps was around 12% among children under five. Malnutrition is thought to be worse among IDPs in host communities, as they lack access to nutrition services. In April, a nutrition assessment found 29% GAM among IDPs under five in Borno state (USAID, 23/07/2015).
2.2 million people are in need of WASH assistance (OCHA, 09/07/2015).
WASH conditions in IDP host communities are critical, with reports of inadequate latrines and lack of access to safe water (IDMC, 16/04/2015). In the northeast, only 46% of the population have access to improved sources of drinking water and 21% to latrines (UNICEF, 13/01/2015).
Residents in two IDP sites have less than 5L of water/person/day. People have more than 15L/p/d in only 13 of 42 sites (IOM, 30/06/2015).
More than 75% of IDP camps lack handwashing and drainage facilities. The number of people sharing a toilet far exceeds the Sphere standard (USAID, 23/07/2015).
Shelter and NFIs
One million people are in need of shelter and NFIs (OCHA, 09/07/2015). IDP sites are often overcrowded (IRIN, 05/06/2015). The number of IDPs in formal camps has been growing since April, and shelter and other basic needs have risen (OCHA, 08/06/2015). There is a reported need for shelter repair materials in half of IDP sites. 4% of IDPs in camps (some 4,450 individuals) are living in self-made tents, while others are staying in public buildings, such as schools and community centres, and government buildings (IOM, 30/06/2015).
10.5 million children are out of school in Nigeria, including 60% in the northeast of the country (UNICEF, 04/2015). 300,000 children in Borno state have been unable to attend school for more than a year (USAID, 17/06/2015).
Low numbers of qualified teachers, scarcity of teaching materials, and fear of sending children to school are main concerns for IDP children’s access to education (UNICEF, 01/06/2015).
BH has repeatedly targeted schools and other educational institutions. More than 300 schools have been severely damaged or destroyed, and at least 196 teachers and 314 school children were killed between January 2012 and December 2014 (UNICEF, 13/04/2015).
2.2 million people are in need of protection (OCHA, 09/07/2015). Top reasons cited for not feeling safe include the killing of civilians, armed encounters and destruction of property. The affected population in the northeast and north-central states indicates main protection concerns are destruction of housing, property and crops, land-related conflicts and forced evictions (UNHCR, 06/07/2015).
Women are at particular risk of sexual violence and trafficking in displacement sites. Unaccompanied minors make up 1.7% of IDPs (23,550 individuals) and physical and emotional abuse of children is reported in many IDP sites. The majority of unaccompanied and separated children are in Borno state, followed by Yobe and Adamawa (IDMC, 16/04/2015; UNICEF, 13/04/2015; OCHA, 07/07/2015; Protection Sector Working Group, 17/07/2015).
IDP camps are facing a significant threat from militant infiltration; some cases of BH militants disguised as IDPs have been reported from Maiduguri (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Abduction, Torture, and Forced Recruitment
Kidnappings of groups of women and girls by BH continue. More than 2,000 women and girls have reportedly been abducted by the group since January (AFP, 30/04/2015; BBC, 14/04/2015).
Women and girls have been trafficked, raped, abducted and forcibly married in areas controlled by BH (OCHA, 30/04/2015). Young men are being forcibly recruited and executed (Amnesty, 13/04/2015). The increasing use of children and women for suicide bombings is of great concern (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Cases of extrajudicial killings, arbitrary arrests, detention, and torture have been documented among Nigerian forces in the course of security operations against BH (Amnesty International, 03/06/2015). Amnesty has raised concerns about the tactics used by security forces in the offensive against BH. More than 8,000 people are said to have died in detention in June (Reuters, 23/06/2015).
Somalia Country Analysis
27 July: Very critical levels of acute malnutrition persist in Hudur and Bulo Burde, where access to food and medication is limited due to road blocks and insecurity (FSNAU).
24 July: Al Shabaab has lost control over Bardhere (Gedo) and Dinsoor (Bay) towns, to Somali and African Union armed forces (BBC, 22/07/2015; 24/07/2015).
21 July: More than 10,000 people have fled towns in Lower Shabelle and Bay regions, as SNAF-AMISOM have started new offensives (AMISOM, 19/07/2015; ECHO, 21/07/2015).
- Widespread violence and insecurity, particularly in south-central Somalia.
- Insecurity and bureaucratic impediments continue to hinder humanitarian access.
- 1.1 million IDPs, mainly in the south-central region, with high concentrations in Mogadishu (UNHCR, 12/2014).
- 2.75 million people need safe water (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
- 3 million are estimated to need emergency health services (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
- Nearly one million people are facing Crisis and Emergency (IPC Phase 3 and 4) food insecurity outcomes (UNICEF, 30/04/2015).
- Some 203,000 children under five are estimated to be acutely malnourished, mainly in south-central Somalia, including 38,200 severely (OCHA, 20/07/2015).
- 1.7 million children are out of school (OCHA, 12/03/2015).
- Nearly one million Somali refugees live in neighbouring countries, mostly Kenya, Ethiopia, and Yemen (UNHCR, 07/07/2015).
Protracted conflict, consecutive years of drought, natural hazards, and disruption of basic infrastructure have led to large-scale displacement in Somalia and across the region. Almost half the population of Somalia, around 3.2 million people, is vulnerable to external shocks and lacking access to basic goods and services, with an estimated 1.5 million people living in seven regions affected by the Somalia–African Union military offensive: Bakool, Gedo, Lower Shabelle, Hiraan, Bay, Banadir, and Lower Juba.
Somalia suffers from a chronic fragility of state institutions as a result of two decades of civil war. Infighting between presidents and prime ministers is a recurrent problem. Vision 2016, the Federal Government’s policy covering constitutional revision, the establishment of regional administrations, and transition to multiparty democracy, is opposed by key figures in the state (UNSC, 25/09/2014; ICG, 01/11/2014).
Security incidents such as suicide attacks, mine explosions, and armed confrontations continue in southern regions. Most incidents between January and May 2015 were reported in Mogadishu, Baidoa, Beletweyne and Kismayo (FSNAU, 26/06/2015). Armed actors conducted more than 340 violent incidents targeting civilians and humanitarian personnel between 1 March and 20 April (USAID, 19/05/2015). Over 2,200 conflict incidents with humanitarian impact were reported in the first nine months of 2014, including military operations, active hostilities, and other forms of violence against civilians (OCHA, 17/10/2014).
Al Shabaab is a militant Islamist group and off-shoot of the Islamic Courts Union. It took over most of southern Somalia in 2006, seeking to establish an Islamic state. Numbering 7,000–9,000 militants, Al Shabaab typically targets Somali government officials, AMISOM forces, and perceived government allies. Attacks in urban centres and along transport axes are common. Al Shabaab has also carried out a number of attacks in Kenya. Al Shabaab was forced out of Mogadishu in 2011 and Kismayo in 2012, and lost Barawe, Lower Shabelle, in October 2014.
In November 2013, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) force was increased to 22,000 from 17,600. Its mandate has been extended until 30 November 2015 (UNSC, 25/09/2014). The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) and AMISOM launched a military offensive against Al Shabaab-held areas in March 2014 (OCHA, 05/2014). The second phase of the offensive began in late August. Bakool, Gedo, Lower Shabelle, Hiraan, Bay, Banadir, and Lower Juba regions are all affected (FSNAU, 03/2015). New offensives started in July in Bay and Gedo regions (AMISOM, 19/07/2015). Galgaduud, Lower and Middle Juba, Middle Shabelle, and Mudug are also expected to be affected (OCHA, 20/07/2015).
Al Shabaab continues attacks on civilians, humanitarian personnel, and government officials. In June, at least 93 Al Shabaab attacks were reported, with 197 fatalities, compared to 92 attacks and 157 fatalities in May. However, for many incidents no number of casualties is confirmed. The number of deaths from Al Shabaab-related violence is thus expected to be much higher (ACLED, 11/07/2015).
Late July, military forces took control of Bardhere and Dinsoor towns. Though local media reported heavy fighting, military sources claim they took the towns without a fight (Horseed media, 20/07/2015; BBC, 24/07/2015; 22/07/2015). Al Shabaab claims the withdrawal was a strategic act, and that it will return (Reuters, 23/07/2015). Other Al Shabaab strongholds, such as Jilib in Middle Juba and Hudur in Bakool, are expected to be targets of the offensive (local media, 19/07/2015).
Local media reports that Al Shabaab has advanced in Lower Shabelle region, and in June was in control of at least three districts: Awdheegle, Tora-toro and Mubarak (Horseed media, 05/07/2015). AMISOM is reportedly withdrawing from some of its smaller outposts in Somalia (BBC, 29/06/2015).
In retaliation for recent Al Shabaab attacks in Kenya, airstrikes were carried out in Gedo region. More than ten civilians were reportedly killed, and many others injured. Residents have fled the area (Horseed media, 12/07/2015; 13/07/2015).
On 21 July, at least 24 civilians were reportedly killed and 22 injured in Marka town, when AMISOM soldiers opened fire. AMISOM claims the victims were Al Shabaab fighters. Many residents fled the area (Al Jazeera, 21/07/2015). On 15 July, clashes occurred between Ethiopian AMISOM forces and Al Shabaab near Wajid district, Bakool (Horseed media, 15/07/2015). The same day, militants were killed in Gedo region in clashes with Kenyan defence forces (AllAfrica, 15/07/2015). On 13 July, Al Shabaab attacked a town in Raga El district, Middle Shabelle, which had been under AU and government control since last year. At least ten Somali soldiers were killed (Horseed media, 13/07/2015). Al Shabaab briefly seized Wanlaweyn town in the southeast of Lower Shabelle on 4 July (Horseed media, 05/07/2015; Raxanreeb, 05/07/2015).
Mogadishu: Al Shabaab attacks in Mogadishu mainly target political figures. On 26 July, at least 13 people were killed and more than 40 injured in a car bomb attack on a hotel that hosts several diplomatic missions. The attack was said to be in retaliation for the dozens of civilians killed by military forces in the south several days earlier (AFP, 27/07/2015; BBC, 26/07/2015). Four people were killed in an attack on an MP on 25 July (AFP, 26/07/2015). On 12 July, a district official and his bodyguards were killed in Kahda district (Horseed media, 12/07/2015). On 10 July, Al Shabaab killed at least five people in two coordinated attacks on two hotels. Dozens were injured. The same day, there was a mortar attack on a former football stadium, which is now a key base of AU troops, but no casualties were reported (AFP, 10/07/2015). On 5 July, a car bomb exploded, targeting a senior security officer. No casualties were reported (Raxanreeb, 05/07/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Restricted humanitarian access continues to affect aid delivery to affected populations in south-central Somalia (OCHA, 02/06/2015). Insecurity on the main roads makes needs assessment, delivery of humanitarian supplies, and response difficult (OCHA, 21/11/2014). Even in areas where there has been no active conflict, illegal checkpoints, banditry, and demands for bribes are common (OCHA, 17/10/2014).
Al Shabaab has cut off road access to towns controlled by AMISOM, including Rabhure and Wajid in Bakool (FEWSNET, 16/04/2015). However, some goods are coming into these towns through community networks (OCHA, 20/07/2015). Hudur district in Bakool is largely inaccessible due to roadblocks and illegal checkpoints, and residents are lacking access to basic services such as food and medicine (Horseed Media, 15/07/2015; OCHA, 20/07/2015). Bulo Burde in Hiraan is only accessible by helicopter; Belet Weyne–Mogadishu and Mogadishu–Baidoa–Dolow are badly affected (OCHA, 24/04/2015; Logistics Cluster, 29/04/2015; OCHA, 12/05/2015). Access to some areas in Bay region is extremely limited (OCHA, 20/07/2015).
The Puntland–Somaliland border is closed (OCHA, 24/04/2015; Logistics Cluster, 29/04/2015; OCHA, 12/05/2015). The indefinite closure of Bosaso Airport, Puntland, for renovation, has severely constrained humanitarian operations (PI, 08/01/2015).
Security Incidents Involving Aid Workers
Over 20 incidents of violence against aid workers were reported in May and June. In the first six months of 2015, the number of security incidents involving aid workers has reached more than 60. Eight workers were killed, 14 injured, five abducted, and 30 arrested or detained (OCHA, 16/07/2015; 20/07/2015). A 400-strong UN military unit was deployed in Mogadishu with a mandate to protect aid workers in May 2014 (UN).
An estimated 1.1 million Somalis were IDPs by June 2015, 893,000 in the south-central region, 129,000 in Puntland, and 84,000 in Somaliland. 369,000 IDPs live in makeshift camps in Mogadishu (UNHCR, 06/05/2015). The same figures have been reported since December 2014 (OCHA, 04/12/2014).
Conflict continues to cause displacement, with more than 10,000 people reported to have fled towns in Lower Shabelle and Bay (OCHA, 16/07/2015; ECHO, 21/07/2015). Between 12 and 20 July, some 900 new IDPs were registered in Dinsoor district, Bay region, and Bardhere, Gedo region (Society Development Initiative Organization, 20/07/2015).
The Tripartite Agreement between the Kenyan and Somali Governments and UNHCR, signed in November 2013, establishes a legal framework for Somali refugees wishing to return home (UNHCR 15/08/2014). 3,000 refugees have registered to return, compared to the original target of 10,000 (UNHCR, 08/12/2014). Between 8 December and 26 July, 2,903 Somalis returned from Kenya. 2,132 have returned to Kismayo, 722 to Baidoa, and 49 to Luuq (UNHCR, 12/07/2015). Afgoye, Balcad, Belet Weyne, Jowhar, Mogadishu and Wanla Weyne have been identified as new areas for return (OCHA, 20/07/2015).
Somali refugees in Kenya cite insecurity and lack of earning opportunities as their main uncertainties regarding return to Somalia (UNHCR, East African, 02/08/2014; UNHCR, 11/08/2014).
Refugees and Returnees from Yemen
The number of new arrivals from Yemen has increased significantly since April. As of 20 July, 25,022 have been registered: 16,614 arrived in Bosaso, Puntland, and 8,284 in Berbera, Somaliland. On 20 July, 1,256 people arrived, compared to around 200 people the previous week (IOM, 16/07/2015; 23/07/2015).
Immediate needs of new arrivals include emergency health relief, food, protection, and WASH (Red Cross Movement, 02/07/2015). Camps are overcrowded and there is not enough capacity to meet needs (local media, 24/05/2015; 13/05/2015; 08/06/2015). A second reception centre is being set up in Bosaso (UNHCR, 14/07/2015). Arrivals are expected to reach 48,000 by September (Red Cross Movement, 02/07/2015). The large majority of arrivals are Somali returnees (21,259), some 2,300 are Yemeni refugees, and the remainder are third-country nationals (IOM, 16/07/2015). Some people continue on to Mogadishu, where they are staying in IDP settlements (UNHCR, 14/07/2015).
Some people fleeing Yemen are being told the conflict in Somalia is over and a peace agreement was signed. Others, especially unaccompanied and separated children, are not aware of the conflict until they arrive in Somalia, and cannot afford to return to Yemen (OCHA, 06/07/2015).
Somali Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
There are 967,445 Somali refugees in neighbouring countries, of whom 2,753 were registered in 2015: at least 421,789 in Kenya, 247,703 in Ethiopia, and 246,648 in Yemen, with the remainder in Uganda, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Tanzania (UNHCR, 07/07/2015).
The food security situation has deteriorated since January, with nearly one million people facing Crisis and Emergency (IPC Phase 3 and 4) food insecurity outcomes as of May; an increase from earlier projections of 730,000 people (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). An additional 2.3 million people are facing Stressed (Phase 2) outcomes and are highly vulnerable to shocks (OCHA, 02/06/2015). IDPs make up some 75% of food-insecure people (OCHA, 20/07/2015).
People in IDP sites are facing Crisis and Emergency food security outcomes. In parts of Hiraan and Bakool that are affected by roadblocks and conflict, most households will face Emergency food insecurity through September 2015, and the situation is likely to persist in the following months (Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 22/05/2015; USAID, 19/05/2015; FSNAU, 26/06/2015; OCHA, 16/07/2015).
Households in northwest agropastoral zones will have to reduce food consumption between July and the next karan harvest in October due to poor crop yields. Pasture shortages are reported in parts of Bari, Sanag, Awdal, and Wooqoi regions in the north, and in Galgaduud, Middle and Upper Juba, and Lower and Upper Shabelle regions in south-central Somalia (FEWSNET, 16/06/2015; GIEWS, 27/07/2015).
From July–December, a deterioration in food security is projected in parts of agricultural livelihood areas of Somalia, particularly in the southern areas of Bay, Bakool, Hiraan, Middle Juba and Middle Shabelle, where reduced crop yields are expected. In livestock-dependent livelihood areas, improvement in food security is likely due to favourable livestock prices, increased milk availability, and increased livestock herd size. However, in the areas with pasture shortages, deteriorating livestock conditions are expected during the dry hagaa season until October (FSNAU, 26/06/2015; GIEWS, 27/07/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
Harvesting of the gu crops is forecast to be below-average in south-central agropastoral areas, as well as in northwestern cropping areas. Off-season harvest in riverine areas of Lower and Middle Juba, Middle Shabelle and Gedo regions will be negatively impacted by below-average hagaa showers from July–September (GIEWS, 27/07/2015).
Prices of staple crops increased in June in markets in the south, including Mogadishu, due to consecutive below-average harvests and conflict-related trade disruptions (GIEWS, 27/07/2015). Prices of food commodities remain high in urban areas of Bakool and Hiraan regions due to trade blockades throughout the past year (FSNAU, 26/06/2015). In Hudur, Bakool, price increases up to 28% were observed in June, compared to May. In Bulo Burde, Hiraan, prices remained relatively stable in June, but continue to be high due to insecurity (FSNAU, 27/07/2015).
Health and Nutrition
Around 3 million people are in need of emergency health services, particularly in Bay, Bakool, Galgaduud, Middle Juba and parts of Gedo (OCHA, 02/06/2015). 1.5 million people are without access to primary health services, including 300,000 children under five, due to funding shortfalls (OCHA, 16/07/2015). In the Humanitarian Response Plan, the health sector is only 8.5% funded, the lowest since 2008. Consequently, ten hospitals have closed or majorly scaled down services in the past three months. Basic health posts and clinics are struggling to meet primary health needs. Many aid agencies have withdrawn health workers due to lack of funds (WHO, 23/07/2015). Hospitals in Dhobley, Galkayo, Jowhar, and Kismayo risk having to suspend services. In 2014, 20 health facilities closed due to limited funding (OCHA, 16/07/2015).
In Hudur, Bakool region, several health centres have closed; those that remain open lack staff and supplies. Many residents do not have access to medical services, as roads have been blocked (Horseed Media, 15/07/2015).
All IDP sites in south-central Somalia had a serious under-five mortality rate May–June (1–1.9/10,000/day) (FSNAU, 06/2015). The situation in Dhobley, Lower Juba, is considered a humanitarian crisis, with critical death rates (1.47/10,000/day), mainly due to acute malnutrition (FSNAU, 06/2015).
Priority health concerns continue to be measles and acute watery diarrhoea (OCHA, 20/07/2015). Among people arriving from Yemen, main health problems include acute respiratory infections, skin and eye infections, diarrhoea, trauma, and burns. Many are arriving on ships that are not meant for passengers, which exacerbate some medical conditions (Red Cross Movement, 02/07/2015).
An estimated 1.3 million people are in need of nutritional support (OCHA, 02/06/2015). An estimated 203,000 children are acutely malnourished: 38,000 severely so (OCHA, 20/07/2015). 26% of nutrition actors have stopped their activities this year due to limited funding, risking an increase in levels of malnutrition (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
In accessible areas of Hudur town, 33% GAM and 19% SAM were observed in a MUAC assessment in July, representing a very critical situation (over 17% GAM). Boys are more affected than girls. Rates were at 16% GAM and 6% SAM in June (FSNAU, 27/07/2015). Very critical malnutrition rates persist in Bulo Burde, with 24% GAM and 7% SAM in July, but SAM has improved from the 19% recorded in June (FSNAU, 27/07/2015).
IDPs: A May–June nutrition assessment found a significant deterioration among IDPs in Kismayo and Dhobley in south-central Somalia. Five sites have critical levels of acute malnutrition (>15% GAM): Baidoa, Dhobley, Garowe, Galkayo and Dolow. In the last three sites, acute malnutrition has been above the critical threshold over the past two years. Among Dhobley IDPs, GAM has nearly doubled since the last assessment (October–December 2014), from 11% to 20.7%. SAM levels are above 4% in Baidoa, Galkayo, and Dolow.
Serious malnutrition levels (10%–15% GAM) were reported among IDPs in Mogadishu, Qardho, Bossaso, Kismayo, Dhusamreeb and Hargeisa. Alert levels (5%–10% GAM) were only seen in the northwest, in Berbera and Burao (FSNAU, 06/2015).
937,000 people are estimated in need of shelter, due to displacement after flooding in south-central Somalia and evictions of displaced communities in Banadir, Kismayo, and other urban areas (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
IDPs in Mogadishu are living in makeshift shelters. The most pressing needs are in Aladala, Aslubta, Beelo and Maslac in Dayniile district, and Ikashi in Hodan (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
2.75 million people need safe water, particularly those in displacement sites and in areas affected by acute watery diarrhoea or cholera (OCHA, 27/03/2015; 02/06/2015).
In Bosaso reception centre, Puntland, latrines are very few, but there is no room to build additional latrines. There is a need to increase water storage capacity (UNHCR, 14/07/2015).
1.7 million children are out of school in south-central Somalia. Children of displaced families remain the most vulnerable and neglected in access to education (OCHA, 12/03/2015; 02/06/2015). There is a lack of teachers and learning materials, and learning facilities are inadequate (OCHA, 20/07/2015).
1.11 million people are considered in need of protection, mainly due to physical insecurity during the SNAF-AMISOM offensive and inter-clan fighting; SGBV, including cases of sexual violence during inter-clan conflict; child protection violations; killing of civilians (including children); separation of children; and forced/secondary eviction. The areas most affected are Middle and Lower Shabelle and Lower Juba (UNHCR Protection Cluster, 10/2014; OCHA, 02/06/2015).
2015 has seen a surge in forced evictions of IDPs. In the first five months of 2015, 96,000 people were reportedly forcibly evicted, compared to 32,500 in the whole of 2014 (OCHA, 20/07/2015). The majority of those evicted from Mogadishu fled to settlements in the outskirts of the city. More than half are in need of shelter, 80% need safe water and latrines, 70% lack access to food, and 60% are in need of health services in the new locations (Food Security Cluster, 23/03/2015). Human Rights Watch reported that authorities beat some of those evicted, destroyed their shelter, and left them without food, water, or assistance (HRW, 20/04/2015). Forced evictions have also been reported in Kismayo, Bosaso, Baidoa, and Luuq (UNHCR, 28/02/2015; ECHO, 25/03/2015; NRC, 18/05/2015; OCHA, 20/07/2015).
The lack of privacy for women and girls at the reception centre in Bosaso is a serious protection concern and poses an SGBV risk (UNHCR, 07/07/2015).
125 grave child rights violations were recorded in May (UNICEF, 31/05/2015). More than 1,000 grave violations were recorded January–April 2015. Grave violations include recruitment or use of children, killing, maiming, rape or other sexual violence (UNICEF). Boys are more affected than girls. 291 cases of child recruitment into armed groups and the national army were reported in the first four months of 2015 and 75 cases of sexual violence against children, compared to 370 and 30, respectively, during the same period in 2014 (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
3,545 children have been identified as separated or unaccompanied since January 2015, compared to 708 in the same period in 2014. More than half are yet to be reunited or placed in interim care. Most children are from south-central Somalia (UNICEF, 31/05/2015).
South Sudan Country Analysis
21 July: The government shut down the River Nile to food barges, preventing deliveries of food aid to 30,000 IDPs in Malakal, Upper Nile (Radio Tamazuj, 21/07/2015). Access to the airport, the only alternative route, is intermittent (Reuters, 23/07/2015).
21 July: Human Rights Watch has released evidence of rape perpetrated by government and government-aligned forces in Unity state (HRW, 21/07/2015).
- 6.4 million people in need of humanitarian assistance in 2015; 4.6 million people to be assisted by the end of 2015 (OCHA, 08/01/2015; UN, 12/06/2015).
- An estimated 3.6 million are predicted to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and a further 1 million in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity by the end of July (IPC, 27/05/2015).
- An estimated 250,000 children are severely malnourished (OCHA, 13/06/2015).
- 1.6 million IDPs since December 2013. 166,142 IDPs are sheltering in six sites on UNMISS bases (UNHCR, 24/07/2015; UNMISS, 27/07/2015).
- 265,887 refugees in South Sudan (mainly from Sudan, DRC, Ethiopia, and CAR) (UNHCR, 24/07/2015).
- 607,678 South Sudanese refugees since December 2013 (UNHCR 10/07/2015).
Violence has spread across eastern and northern South Sudan since December 2013. Fighting has been focused in the oil-rich northeastern states during the first six months of 2015. Strife has progressively adopted the characteristics of an inter-communal conflict between the Dinka tribe allied to South Sudan President Kiir and government forces, and the Nuer, loosely allied with former South Sudan Vice President Riek Machar.
Jonglei, Upper Nile, and Unity are priority states, and the priority sectors are food security and livelihoods, health, NFIs and shelter, nutrition, and WASH. Insecurity is hampering the delivery of assistance. The UN reports widespread violation of human rights and targeted violence against civilians.
Relations between Sudan and South Sudan have been poor since South Sudan gained independence in 2011. The violence in South Sudan since December 2013 has exacerbated tensions, with additional concerns in Khartoum regarding an influx of refugees and arms, as well as disruption of oil flow. Sudan has accused South Sudan of using Sudanese militia groups to fight insurgents. South Sudan has made similar accusations.
Since violence broke out in December 2013, President Kiir’s government forces (SPLA), who are predominantly Dinka and backed by Ugandan troops, are pitted against a loose alliance of military defectors loyal to former Vice President Riek Machar called the SPLA-in-Opposition, or SPLM-in-Opposition (SPLM-IO) along with ethnic Nuer militia forces. Since the beginning of the conflict there have been several splinter groups forming after leaving the SPLM-IO. Despite a significant reduction in intensity from January 2014, violence persists.
The UN Security Council adopted a resolution setting out criteria for targeted sanctions on individuals or entities threatening security and stability in South Sudan in early March (UN, 03/03/2015). Internationally backed peace negotiations are under way in Addis Ababa. Direct negotiations between Kiir and Machar are scheduled to begin in mid-August (Sudan Tribune 19/07/2015, VOA, 17/07/2015). At least seven ceasefires have been signed and broken since the civil war started in December 2013 (The Daily Star, 29/06/2015).
On 24 March, the South Sudanese Parliament voted to extend President Kiir’s term by three years, cancelling elections scheduled for June 2015 (AFP, 24/03/2015). On 29 May, the Government expelled the UN resident coordinator; no reason was given (The Guardian, 01/06/2015).
Oil production is at one-third of its level in 2011. The central bank of South Sudan is allegedly printing money to meet a budget shortfall (Al Jazeera, 27/06/2015). Although the official Bank of South Sudan exchange rate remains pegged at 3.1 South Sudanese Pounds (SSP) to 1 US Dollar (USD), the informal exchange rate reached 8.5 SSP for 1 USD in mid-April (FEWSNET, 18/04/2015). The SSP depreciated by approximately 26% from December 2014 to March 2015. Fuel and food prices continue to increase dramatically (FEWSNET 24/06/2015).
Most violence is occurring in the oil-rich northeastern states of Unity, Upper Nile, and Jonglei. Clashes have intensified since January, with another significant escalation since March.
As of early June, two months of fighting in Unity and Upper Nile have led to significant displacement and access challenges (UNHCR, 02/06/2015). Between 25 May and 12 June, at least 466 civilians were killed and 1,294 injured (WHO, 12/06/2015). At least 50,000 may have died since December 2013, although access restrictions make numbers hard to verify (International Crisis Group, 15/11/2014).
International Military Presence
The UN Security Council voted in December 2013 to increase the number of peacekeepers in the country from 10,000 to 12,500. As of 28 February 2015, there were 11,669 uniformed personnel. The UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) current mandate expires on 30 November 2015. On 2 July the UN Human Rights Council sent monitors to South Sudan, following a UNMISS report on atrocities in Unity state (AFP, 02/07/2015).
Border Tensions with Sudan
Sudanese forces moved towards the border with South Sudan’s Unity and Upper Nile states in July, reportedly in an attempt to protect Sudan’s interest in the oil-rich territory that straddles the border (World Bulletin, 13/07/2015). Reports of cross-border raids are not uncommon.
The capital of Unity state was transferred from Bentiu to Mankien, Mayom county on 15 April (UNMISS, 15/04/2015).
In May and June, the SPLA launched major offensives against SPLA-IO positions, taking key locations, particularly in Leer and Malakal. The SPLA-IO has retaken the positons since the rainy season began (Small Arms Survey, 01/07/2015).
Burning, looting, and rape have been reported throughout the campaign and hundreds of thousands have been displaced. An UNMISS report released on 30 June accused SPLA troops of targeting civilians. At least 67 civilians have been reported killed and over 250 girls subject to sexual violence (Al Jazeera, 30/06/2015; Radio Tamazuj 30/06/2015; Radio Dabanga, 30/06/2015). Human Rigths Watch report records 63 in
Clashes between the Government and SPLM-in-Opposition
Unity: Forces allied to Riek Machar claimed they had regained control of Leer and Koch counties on 29 June and 5 July, respectively (Sudan Tribune, 29/06/2015; 05/07/2015). There are unconfirmed reports of armed men illegally entering Bentiu Protection of Civilians (PoC) site (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Upper Nile: Malakal is strategic for control of South Sudan’s oil revenue. Six civilians were wounded after an attack by an armed group while travelling in a truck near Malakal (Reuters, 23/07/2015). On 7 July, SPLA forces retook Malakal from the SPLA-IO. Malakal has been captured and recaptured by both sides repeatedly over the last three months (Sudan Tribune, 07/07/2015). On 1 July, a shooting incident directed at the Malakal PoC site killed one and injured eight IDPs (MSF, 03/07/2015).
East Equatoria state: The SPLA advanced along the Uganda–South Sudan border near the town of Nimule on 8 July, before quickly retreating. An unknown number of civilians were displaced (Sudan Tribune, 09/07/2015).
Central Equatoria: On 18 July gunmen attacked vehicles on the Juba–Kajokeji road, killing five and wounding seven. The motivation behind the attack is unknown (Sudan Tribune, 18/07/2015).
Juba: On 22 June, five IDPs from Juba PoC were shot during an incident in the marketplace next to the PoC (UN, 22/06/2015).
Lakes: Inter-communal violence has been reported in counties across Lakes state since September 2014. Attacks on traders and travellers are frequent (local media, 15/06/2015). Between 2 and 5 July, up to 16 people are estimated to have been killed and over 20 wounded in inter-clan clashes in Cueibet county. One aid worker was among the dead (Radio Tamazuj, 04/07/2015; Sudan Tribune, 04/07/2015). On 5 June, armed pastoralists, not reported to be associated with any major armed group, clashed with security personal (local media, 05/06/2015).
Warrap: At least 18 people were killed in clashes between clans of Gogrial East county and Gogrial West county over 14–29 May (local media, 29/05/2015).
Western Equatoria: Sporadic but continuous clashes between tribal and clan groups continue, particularly around Maridi. At least 14 deaths and 16 injuries were recorded in June in clashes related to cattle theft (OCHA, 15/07/2015; Sudan Tribune, 18/06/2015). 196 house were burnt in Maridi and the hospital was looted. Approximately 30,000 people are believed to have been displaced (OCHA, 15/07/2015). On 23 May, armed violence was reported in Mundri town. An unconfirmed number of people, believed to be in the thousands, are displaced and without shelter (OCHA, 29/05/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
6.4 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in 2015 (OCHA, 08/01/2015). The delivery of aid is restricted by heavy fighting, logistical constraints, and administrative impediments. The arrival of the rainy season and insecurity have led the ICRC to deliver aid via air drops for the first time in 20 years (ICRC, 30/06/2015).
On 13 May, Parliament passed an ‘NGO Bill’, which requires that organisations sign a 'country agreement'. Similar agreements have been used before to control organisations in Sudan. The bill would also ban the formation of forums for international NGOs, which could hinder coordination, and allow the Government to impose unspecified fees (IRIN, 13/05/2015).
On 29 May, the Government expelled the UN resident coordinator: no reason was given (The Guardian, 01/06/2015).
The security situation in Unity, Jonglei and Upper Nile remains volatile and continues to restrict humanitarian access, after heaving fighting April–June. Some organisations are returning (ICRC, 27/05/2015; MSF, 29/06/2015; UNHCR, 15/07/2015).
On 21 July, the government shut down the River Nile to food barage, preventing deliveries of food aid to 30,000 IDPs in Malakal. The last food delivery was on 7 July (Radio Tamazuj, 21/07/2015). The only alternative route is by air, but access to the airport is intermittent due to fighting (IOM, 22/07/2015; Reuters, 23/07/2015).
Assault, burglary, harassment, arrest, and detention have all been reported in 2015. Most cases were reported in Juba (Central Equatoria), Bentiu (Unity), and Upper Nile (OCHA, 01/07/2015).
According to a statement by the UN, 27 aid workers have been killed since December 2013 and escalation of conflict in South Sudan (Sudan Tribune, 25/07/2015).
As of June 2015, around 2.5 million people have been displaced internally and to neighbouring countries (UNHCR, 11/06/2015). Fluid displacement patterns and limited access to rural areas make numbers difficult to verify (UNHCR 11/07/2014).
There are approximately 1.6 million IDPs in South Sudan: 595,500 in Jonglei, 437,600 in Unity, 74,100 in Central Equatoria, 244,900 in Upper Nile, and 125,400 in Lakes (UNHCR, 24/07/2015). An estimated 802,120 IDPs are under 18 (UNICEF, 26/03/2015).
Displacement patterns remain fluid, driven by violence, floods, and the search for emergency assistance (IOM, 03/09/2014). Many IDPs are repeatedly displaced. Since the beginning of May, fighting south of Bentiu, Unity state displaced up to 100,000 people at its peak (UNHCR, 02/06/2015).
Fighting in Upper Nile state reportedly displaced some 25,000 IDPs near Melut. They fled towards Paloch. The status of these IDPs remains unknown (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
64,000 more people are seeking shelter in PoCs in 2015 than in 2014 (OCHA, 15/07/2015). As of 10 July, 166,142 civilians are in six PoC sites on UNMISS bases, including 103,913 in Bentiu (25,605 new arrivals since 30 June), 28,663 in Juba UN House, 30,410 in Malakal (3,932 new arrivals between 13 and 20 June) 2,289 in Bor, 665 in Melut, and 202 in Wau (UNMISS, 27/07/2015). The influx into Bentiu PoC can be attributed to the frontline of the conflict moving northward from Leer, through Koch and towards Bentiu during July.
Refugees in South Sudan
265,887 refugees are in South Sudan: around 235,000 are from Sudan, 15,500 from DRC, 4,900 from Ethiopia, and 2,040 from CAR. Over 134,000 refugees are based in Upper Nile and around 96,500 in Unity (UNHCR, 24/07/2015). There has been over 10,000 new arrivals in 2015 (ECHO, 01/07/2015). Most of the Sudanese refugees in Upper Nile state reside in four refugee camps in Maban county (OCHA, 03/04/2014).
Since 23 December 2014, 13,479 new refugees have arrived in Yida, bringing the total to 70,007 (UNCHR, 30/06/2015). Arrival rates have increased sharply in 2015 (OCHA, 21/02/2015). Refugees cited aerial bombardments, ground attacks and lack of livelihood and education opportunities as reasons for leaving (UNHCR, 30/01/2015).
The South Sudan Government wants to close Yida camp in June 2015 and relocate refugees to other camps further from the Sudanese border. The Government and UNHCR have agreed to expand Ajuong Thok refugee camp to accommodate up to 40,000 people. Since December 2014 14,761 have been transferred from Yida (UNCHR, 30/06/2015). The number of people in Yida is fluid as refugees from Sudan frequently engage in cross-border movement, returning to the camp as the need for resources or safely arises (PI, 03/07/2015). Tensions between refugees and the host community are rising following security incidents between the two communities in June. Subsequently, local authorities have banned refugees from leaving camps to fish and farm (UNHCR, 14/07/2015).
South Sudan Refugees in Other Countries
622,122 South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighbouring countries since the onset of the conflict in December 2013. 68% of South Sudanese refugees are under 17 (UNHCR, 24/07/2015; 10/07/2015). Since the beginning of 2015, over 65,000 South Sudanese have fled the country, with 31,000 seeking refuge in Sudan, predominantly in White Nile state (UNHCR, 26/06/2015).
Sudan: As of 10 July, 198,657 South Sudanese nationals have arrived in Sudan since December 2013 (UNHCR, 22/07/2015). Around 14,000 new refugees entered over 12–14 June due to fighting in Upper Nile (UNHCR, 18/06/2015).
The Sudanese Government refuses to recognise South Sudanese nationals as refugees and instead considers them to be Sudanese citizens (UNHCR, 03/04/2014). UNHCR declared this constitutes an obstacle to accessing humanitarian assistance.
Ethiopia: 218,026 South Sudanese refugees (UNHCR, 22/07/2015).
Uganda: 159,125 South Sudanese refugees (UNHCR, 22/07/2015).
Kenya: 46,314 South Sudanese refugees (UNHCR, 22/07/2015).
The number of people living in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security was expected to reached 3.6 million and 1 million, respectively, by the end of July (IPC, 27/05/2015), but predictions from FEWSNET suggest that the situation may be even worse. This is due to the conflict cutting off access to communities in Upper Nile and Unity, as well as deteriorating macro-economic conditions (FEWNET, 24/06/2015). Fangak, Canal/Pigi, Ulang, Luakpiny/Nasir, and Longochuk counties were at Emergency as of April (FEWSNET, 20/04/2015; WFP, 15/04/2015; IPC, 27/05/2015).
Logistical constraints make timely delivery of food by WFP to Upper Nile a challenge (UNHCR, 05/06/2015). Fighting forced WFP to stop food distribution to 155,000 food insecure people (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Though no assessment has produced figures, Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes are likely in Ayod and Mayendit, where 10% of the population has been observed as severely food insecure (FEWNET, 24/06/2015).
The affected population, particularly in Unity, Jonglei, and Upper Nile state, have reportedly prepositioed supplies in case of displacement. However, increased use of coping strategies during 2014 due to fighting and difficult lean season has diminished their effectiveness and long-term food security (PI, 01/07/2015).
Planting in Unity, Upper Nile, and Jonglei remains severely limited for the second consecutive year due to conflict. Below-average harvests are expected, and poor and IDP households are expected to exhaust food stocks by December (FEWSNET, 22/07/2015).
Livelihoods and Markets
In Juba, prices of both locally produced and imported cereals, vegetable oil and sugar increased by 24–69% in the first quarter of 2015, making them 90–100% higher than the normal seasonal levels. For most households, 80-85% of income is spent on food (FAO, 02/07/2015; IPC, 27/05/2015). An estimated 610,000 people, more than half concentrated in Juba and Wau, have severely undermined livelihoods (FAO, 02/07/2015).
Health and Nutrition
4.6 million people need health assistance (UN, 12/06/2015). Responders are unable to conduct the measures necessary to tackle preventable diseases. The response is further hampered as conflict hinders access to health facilities and hospitals are frequently damaged in attacks (International Organisation, 24/07/2015).
Malaria, acute respiratory infections, acute watery diarrhoea, and acute bloody diarrhoea are the main causes of illness among IDPs (WHO, 15/02/2015). The start of the rainy season in June has increased the risk of infection from waterborne diseases, particularly in IDP and refugee camps (UNHCR, 12/06/2015). The case fatality Proportion (CFR) for malaria is higher than the same week in 2014, at 28.9% in contrast to 18.3% (WHO, 19/07/2015). 344 measles cases, including five deaths, have been registered in Bentiu PoC since the beginning of 2015 (WHO, 19/07/2015).
5–8% of citizens have severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (FEWSNET, 24/06/2015). An estimated 250,000 children are severely malnourished, according to an OCHA representative (OCHA, 13/06/2015). Malnutrition remains particularly high among pregnant and lactating women, with an average rate of 26.6% recorded in IDP camps (UNHCR, 26/06/2015).
In Bentiu PoC site, screening of 9,288 children under five revealed a SAM rate of 1.8%. In Jonglei, 10,865 children under-five were screened, and 4.8% were severely malnourished. In Upper Nile, screening of 4,899 children found 0.6% SAM (UNICEF, 21/05/2015).
Malnutrition screening of 22,917 children in January and February in the three conflict-affected states found GAM levels above the emergency threshold of 15% in Upper Nile (17.2%), Unity (18.9%) and Jonglei (26%) (UNICEF, 26/03/2015). Among the traditionally high-burden states in non-conflict areas, GAM rates were highest in Warrap (17.2%) and Northern Bahr el Ghazal (14.6%) (WFP, 12/2014).
1,316 cases of visceral leishmaniasis, including 39 deaths (case fatality rate 3.18%), were reported in Lankien, Ulang, Walgak, and Chuil (Jonglei) in the first quarter of 2015. Of these, 837 were new cases, 188 were relapses, and 18 did not complete treatment (WHO, 15/02/2015; 29/03/2015).
7,204 cases and 199 deaths were recorded in 2014, compared to 2,992 cases and 88 deaths for all 2013 (WHO, 08/01/2015). Kala azar is a chronic and potentially fatal parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of infected sandflies.
The current outbreak began on 18 May in Juba PoC. 1,375 suspected cases and 42 deaths have been recorded as of 26 July in Bor (Jonglei state) and Juba county: 1,264 cases and 41 deaths have been recorded in Juba county. The CFR for cholera is double the global average, at 3.2% (WHO, 26/07/2015).
6.4 million people are estimated to be in need of WASH assistance (UN, 12/06/2015). Nationwide, 55% of people have access to safe drinking water (OCHA, 15/07/2015). 80% of people in Juba report a lack of access to clean water (OCHA, 01/07/2015).
Only Dabat Bosin refugee site has adequate water supply to reach SPHERE emergency standards of 15L per person per day (UNHCR, 29/05/2015). Water coverage slightly deteriorated in the PoCs in July. In Melut PoC, Bentiu PoC, and Malakal PoC 11, 9.4, and 12 L/person/day were available respectively (IOM, 22/07/2015; 25/06/2015). In Yida refugee camp, crude water coverage was 14 L/person/day (UNHCR, 22/06/2015).
38,500 displaced people are reported to be in urgent need of clean water and sanitation in Wau Shilluk (OCHA, 01/07/2015).
Over 80% of the reported latrines in Ajuong Thok camp (Unity state) lack roofs or doors, and are not gender-separated (UNHCR, 29/05/2015). Sanitation provision has remained stable, with some slight improvement in Malaka PoC in July. Malakal PoC, Bentiu PoC, and Melut have 44, 21, and 55 people per latrine, respectively (IOM, 22/07/2015; 25/06/2015)
An estimated 2 million people are in need of education assistance (UN, 12/06/2015). Only 6% of 13-year-old girls have completed primary school (Plan, 10/06/2015).
83 schools are occupied by armed groups or IDPs (OCHA, 27/03/2014). Many schools remain closed in Jonglei, Unity, and Upper Nile (local media, 20/03/2015).
In Ajuong Thok, Napere and Makpandu refugee camps, the pupil: teacher ratio is 72:1, 52:1 and 43:1. All fall short of the UNHCR standard of 40:1 (UNHCR, 24/07/2015; 14/07/2015). The inability to pay teachers’ wages has limited education activities in displacement areas (OCHA, 26/10/2014).
A UN Security Council report stated that all parties to the conflict since December 2013 were responsible for grave violations against children, including killing and maiming, recruitment and use, abduction, and rape and other forms of sexual violence (UN, 30/12/2014). In the second quarter of 2015, there were at least 166 incidents of child rights violations, affecting 4,184 children (OCHA, 01/07/2015). In Unity state alone, 129 children were killed in the last three weeks of May (UNICEF, 17/06/2015).
25,000 children have been separated from their families (UN, 16/06/2015). 13,000 children have reportedly been recruited by armed groups since the beginning of 2014 (OCHA Monitor, 16/06/2015). Since January, UNICEF has released 1,757 children who had been recruited as child soldiers by the Cobra faction (UNICEF, 24/04/2015).
Rape has been used as a weapon of war between government and opposition forces (HRW, 21/07/2015). The An UNMISS report released on 30 June accused SPLA troops of abducting at least 172 women and girls and raping an additional 79 during their April–May campaign in Unity state. Some were burnt alive inside their homes after being raped (Al Jazeera, 30/06/2015; Radio Tamazuj 30/06/2015; Dabanga, 30/06/2015). Human Rights Watch has also released evidence of rape and violence in Unity state by government and government aligned forces in April to May (HRW, 21/07/2015). The abduction of IDP women from outside PoCs continues to be reported (UNHCR, 12/06/2015).
Early and forced marriage, rape, and domestic violence have been reported in Maban refugee camps (OCHA, 16/10/2014). In Melut (Upper Nile), firewood collection remains a major safety concern for women and girls, with reports of GBV (OCHA, 26/10/2014).
However, it is difficult to obtain SGBV figures as people collecting information on SGBV face intimidation and threats. This was most recently reported in Central Equatoria (UNHCR, 14/07/2015).
16 July: Storms in El Abassiya and in Abu Kershola locality in South Kordofan affected 600 people, damaging schools, clinics and water yards (OCHA, 19/07/2015).
13–19 July: 2,157 mainly South Sudanese refugees arrived in Sudan, at an average rate of 308 people per day (OCHA, 19/07/2015).
24 July: There have been an increase in the number of people dying from respiratory infections, malnutrition, and diarrhoea-related causes in El Salam locality, White Nile state (UNHCR, 24/07/2015).
- 6.6 million people (20% of the population) need humanitarian assistance (OCHA 17/11/2014): 4.4 million in Darfur and 980,000 in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states (OCHA, 11/2014).
- 1,289,000 million people face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes. Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and West Kordofan are worst affected (IPC, 01/07/2015; FSNWG, 26/05/2015).
- 1.2 million children under five acutely malnourished, an estimated 550,000 are severely acutely malnourished (OCHA, 23/04/2015).
- 3.1 million IDPs. Two million in Darfur prior to 2014, 209,000 displaced in 2015 (OCHA, 15/05/2015).
- Humanitarian access remains a significant problem due to insecurity, mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), logistical constraints, and restrictions placed by the authorities.
Large-scale internal displacement due to violence, widespread food insecurity, malnutrition, lack of access to basic services, and recurrent natural disasters. Humanitarian access to conflict zones is severely restricted.
Numerous, protracted insurgencies are being waged by several armed groups across Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile. Darfur has been the scene of inter-communal clashes and conflict between the government and armed opposition for over a decade.Violence in Blue Nile and South Kordofan grew significantly after South Sudan won independence in 2011. Tensions also continue to run high between Sudan and South Sudan.
Profound divisions within Sudanese society have persisted since independence in 1956, and the Government’s exploitation of intercommunal differences has aggravated the situation.
Parliamentary and presidential elections were held 13–15 April, and according to unofficial estimates President Omar al Bashir achieved a landslide victory. Voter turnout was reportedly extremely low (AP, 13/04/2015; international media, 19/04/2015). The Sudan Revolutionary Front, the National Umma Party, and other opposition groups boycotted the elections (Al Jazeera, 27/04/2015).
Sudanese forces moved towards the border with South Sudan’s Unity and Upper Nile states in July, reportedly in an attempt to protect Sudan’s interest in the oil-rich territory that straddles the border (World Bulletin, 13/07/2015).
Tensions between Khartoum and Juba, persistent since South Sudan’s independence in 2011, increased when violence erupted in South Sudan in December 2013. The disruption of oil flow is a key concern for both countries.
The Sudanese Government has accused Juba of using Sudanese militia groups, and the South Sudanese army (SPLA) has accused Khartoum of supporting the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement -in-Opposition. Both the opposition and Khartoum have denied the accusations. In 2014, South Sudanese officials accused the Sudanese Government of bombing Raga county, Western Bahr el Ghazal state, and Maban county, Upper Nile state, where more than 220,000 Sudanese refugees are living (AFP, 14/11/2014).
Sudan Revolutionary Front
The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), formed in 2011, is seeking a comprehensive peace process covering the whole country. The Government is only willing to discuss the conflict in Darfur.
The SRF is made up of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), mainly active in Blue Nile and South Kordofan states, as well as Darfur’s three largest opposition groups: the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM); the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Abdel Wahid Al Nur (SLM-AW); and the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Minni Arkou Minnawi (SLM-MM).
In March 2015, the Sudanese Government and a number of Darfur opposition-group commanders led by Mohamedain Ismail Basher, formerly the SLM-MM operations commander, signed a peace agreement in N’Djamena, Chad.
Blue Nile and South Kordofan States
While the SPLM governs the independent South Sudan, the SPLM-North continues an insurgency in Sudan’s Blue Nile and South Kordofan states, which have routinely opposed government rule. Talks between Khartoum and the SPLM-N have repeatedly failed, and negotiations last collapsed in April 2014.
UN Peacekeeping Mission
Relations between the Government of Sudan and the UN peacekeeping mission deteriorated following the Government’s refusal to allow a African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) investigate mass rape in North Darfur at the end of 2014 (AFP, 30/11/2014). Despite protests from the Sudanese government, the Security Council extended UNAMID’s mandate until June 2016 (Firstpost, 29/06/2015).
Extensive military operations aimed to end armed opposition in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile began at the end of 2013. Large-scale violence by pro-government militia against the IDP population in Darfur continues in 2015, and airstrikes by the Sudanese Air Force (SAF) remain frequent. Information on Blue Nile and South Kordofan states is difficult to obtain as government authorities severely restrict access to the fighting zone. According to Human Rights Watch and local media, the Government of Sudan continues to target civilian areas of South Kordofan’s Nuba Mountains. The most recent bombing campaign allegedly began in February 2015 (Nuba Reports, 05/2015; Human Rights Watch, 16/04/2015).
Tribal fighting also intensified in Darfur and Kordofan regions in 2013 and 2014, leading to thousands of deaths and injuries and forcing over 300,000 people to flee their homes.
Fighting between SPLM-N and government troops intensified in March in Blue Nile and South Kordofan (SKBNCU, 03/2015). In May, local civil society actors reported an intensification of conflict, as government and SPLM-N forces attempted to gain ground ahead of the rainy season. One organisation reported 665 attacks, 39 civilians killed, 148 people injured, and 347 houses destroyed, displacing thousands. If correct, these figures are an increase on the number of violent incidents in May 2014 (The Sudan Consortium, 05/2015).
Only 15 July, gunmen opened fire on a UNAMID patrol between Bowa and Turmes villages in North Darfur. No casualties were reported (UNAMID, 17/07/2015). On 15 June, government forces conducted operations to regain control of the former government garrison town of Rokoro, Central Darfur. 38 civilians are reported to have been killed. Fighters attacked the government base in the West Darfur capital of Geneina on 15 June (local media, 16/06/2015). On 12 June, government airstrikes in Central Darfur targeted Solo and Dalo settlements, reportedly killing three civilians (local media, 12/06/2015).
Inter-communal violence: Since 4 July clashes between Rizeigat and Habaniya tribesmen in Sunta locality in South Darfur have killed over 180 people, according to local sources (All Africa, 05/07/2015; Radio Dabanga, 14/07/2015).
Kordofan and Blue Nile
On 25 June, SPLM-N forces attacked the South Kordofan town of Talodi. Dozens were killed and around 100 injured (Sudan Tribune, 05/07/2015). On 12 June, the Sudanese Government bombed Wed Abuk in Blue Nile state (local media, 14/06/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
6.6 million people (20% of the population) are in need of humanitarian assistance; more than half are in Darfur and South Kordofan and Blue Nile states (OCHA 17/11/2014).
4.4 million people in Darfur, more than half of the region’s population, needed humanitarian assistance. This includes 2.5 million IDPs150,000 returnees (OCAH, 30/06/2015).
In South Kordofan and Blue Nile states, 749,000 need assistance in government-controlled areas and 378,000 are estimated displaced by conflict in SPLM-N territory. Limited access to non-government areas makes verification impossible.
Humanitarian access for international relief organisations is a major problem. Humanitarian operations are hampered by insecurity, the presence of mines and ERW, logistical constraints, and government restrictions.
Administrative and Logistical Constraints
Access to areas of active conflict in Darfur remains largely denied (OCHA, 03/06/2015). The government has also banned humanitarian access to areas controlled by opposition groups. Authorities denied UNAMID and humanitarian agencies access to Abu Karinka after conflict there in May (IRIN, 02/06/2015).
East Jebel Marra has been virtually inaccessible since 2010. There has been no humanitarian access from Sudan to opposition-held areas in South Kordofan since October 2013.
August 2013 regulations ban foreign humanitarian groups and UN agencies from working for human rights.
Security Incidents Involving Aid Workers
An increase in carjacking incidents targeting aid organisations has been reported in 2015, with at least three recorded in mid-May (OCHA, 24/05/2015). On 21 July, a Sudanese UNAMID worker was captured by unidentified gunmen in Darfur, and released five days later (Sudan Tribune, 26/07/2015). Three national aid workers were killed in Blue Nile state and two attacks on aid organisations were reported between January and February 2015 (ECHO, 10/02/2015; MSF, 22/01/2015). 25 aid workers were abducted in Darfur in 2014, the highest number of abduction cases recorded since 2004 (OCHA, 22/01/2015).
761 houses were partially or completely destroyed by heavy rains in Kalma IDP camp in South Darfur. Over 3,500 people are reported affected (OCHA, 12/07/2015).
On 16 June, storms in El Abassiya and in Abu Kershola locality, South Kordofan, affected 600 people, damaging schools, clinics and water yards (OCHA, 19/07/2015).
In early June, heavy rainfall in Central Darfur destroyed several houses and caused food stock loss, in particular affecting IDPs (local media, 03/06/2015).
As of May 2015, there are 3.1 million IDPs in Sudan: 2.55 million are in Darfur (OCHA, 03/06/2015; UNHCR, 30/04/2015).
Up to 210,000 people have been displaced in Darfur since the start of 2015. This is an increase of 67,000 since May (UNICEF, 30/06/2015). Around 27,000 have returned home (OCHA, 30/06/2015). These are similar to figures for the previous year, which saw the biggest displacement for a decade (OCHA, 31/12/2014).
2.4 million IDPs reside in 46 camps and 68 settlements in Darfur (including 82,530 orphansand 52,352 sick and elderly), according to a survey conducted by the Darfur Regional Authority (DRA) from December 2013 to April 2014. OCHA reported in June that government policy to prevent the creation of new camps is an obstacle to the verification and registration of IDPs (IRIN, 02/06/2015). The displaced in Darfur report insecurity as a major concern. Other concerns include lack of access to basic services such as water, food, shelter, and medicines (IRIN, 02/06/2015).
Jebel Marra: Up to 100,000 people may have been displaced since the beginning of 2015, however lack of access means humanitarian agencies have been unable to confirm the number or reach the displaced (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
North Darfur: On 7 July, inter-tribal fighting displaced 2,500 towards Mellit town in Mellit locality. Reports suggest the fighting has now ended (OCHA, 12/07/2015).
Central Darfur: Between May and June, over 320 people came to Zalingei camp, Central Darfur, after their homes were burned down by militia groups (OCHA, 21/06/2015). An estimated 15,000 people have returned to their homes in Um Dukhun locality, according to a recent needs assessment (OCHA, 28/06/2015). There were 74,000 verified IDPs at the beginning of January 2015 (OCHA 31/12/2014).
East Darfur: 35,000 IDPs as of end November 2014 (OCHA, 31/12/2014).
West Darfur: 6,000 IDPs arrived from East Darfur fleeing fighting between the Southern Reizeigat and Maaliya tribes in May (OCHA, 24/05/2015).
Blue Nile and South Kordofan: Over 378,000 people are estimated displaced in SPLM-N territory (OCHA, 03/02/2015). With no presence in SPLM-N territory, the UN is unable to verify these figures (OCHA, 19/05/2014). 40,000 people have been displaced in Blue Nile since the start of 2015 (OCHA, 15/06/2015). Another 16,300 arrived in Blue Nile on 10 June. Approximately 24,500 people need improved shelter, access to safe water, nutrition, and health services (UNICEF, 31/05/2015; OCHA, 28/06/2015). In May, different organisations reported between 7,000 and 26,000 people displaced in South Kordofan (HART, 05/06/2015; The Sudan Consortium, 05/2015).
West Kordofan: More than 52,000 people were reported displaced in 2014 (OCHA, 21/09/2014).
Refugees in Sudan
There are over 310,000 refugees in Sudan (UNHCR, 30/04/2015).
As of 22 July, 198,657 are South Sudanese nationals who have arrived in Sudan since 15 December 2013: 119,000 are children (UNHCR, 22/07/2015; UNICEF, 30/06/2015). As of 22 July, 107,191 South Sudanese refugees live in White Nile (approximate 9,952 in the host community), 33,957 in Khartoum, 33,435 in North and West Kordofan, 20,249 in South Kordofan, 3,661 in Blue Nile, and 164 in East Darfur (UNHCR, 22/07/2015). 91% of households are female-headed (UNHCR, 29/01/2015).
The number of arrivals increased dramatically in June and early July following intense conflict in Upper Nile and Unity states. Over 13–19 July 2,157 refugees arrived in Sudan, at an average rate of 308 people per day (OCHA, 19/07/2015). 5,000 South Sudanese refugees who passed through the transit point at Diffra in Abyei on their way to Sudan require shelter assistance (OHCA, 12/07/2015).
Camps in White Nile are unable to meet the needs of the refugees who arrived in the second quarter of 2015 mainly due to the escalation of violence in Unity and Upper Nile in South Sudan (OCHA, 19/07/2015). IDPs’ conditions in North Darfur remain poor due to lack of basic services (Radio Dabanga, 27/07/2015).
2,496 displaced South Sudanese are living in the disputed area of Abyei (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
Sudanese Refugees in Other Countries
As of January 2015, OCHA reported 367,000 Sudanese refugees in Chad, 233,000 in South Sudan, 35,000 in Ethiopia, and 1,880 in Central African Republic (UNHCR, 23/02/2015; OCHA, 03/02/2015).
13,479 refugees from South Kordofan have fled to South Sudan (Yida, in Unity state) since December 2014 (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
Food security has not deteriorated as much as previously predicted during the lean season, which began in June. 1,289,000 people are reportedly facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes. This is due to improved pasture conditions, abundant production of cereals (IPC, 01/07/2015).
Those areas that remain the worst affected by food insecurity are also affected by conflict, which prevents food distribution. Nearly 80% of households in South Kordofan experienced severe food insecurity during the first quarter of 2015 (OCHA, 19/07/2015). Newly displaced households and IDPs without access to humanitarian assistance are facing Crisis food security (IPC, 01/07/2015).
The ability of communities to cope has been depleted in South Kordofan, but those who are frequently affected by conflict and displacement in South Kordofan are reportedly pre-positioning supplies in case of displacement or damage by aerial attack. Cross-frontline trading is also believed to be continuing (PI, 03/07/2015).
Health and Nutrition
The UN estimated in mid-December 2013 that 165,000 children in SPLM-N-controlled parts of South Kordofan and Blue Nile do not have access to basic health services.
Mortality from acute respiratory infections, malnutrition, and diarrhoea-related causes has increased in El Salam locality, White Nile state. 12 such deaths were reported between 10 and 24 July (UNHCR, 24/07/2015).
There are indications that the health situation in Darfur is deteriorating; many have no access to healthcare.
A measles outbreak began in late 2014. As of 24 May, 2,511 confirmed cases and 38 deaths have been reported in 2015, in 17 of Sudan’s 18 states (OCHA, 29/06/2015). Seven people have died from measles in the densely populated Zamzam IDP camp in North Darfur (Radio Dabanga, 02/07/2015). 167 confirmed measles cases were reported in the week ending 3 May, compared with 101 cases during the previous week. West Darfur is worst affected (653 confirmed cases, nine deaths as of early May). Kassala has had 397 confirmed cases and five deaths, while in Red Sea state, there have been 352 cases and five deaths (WHO, 03/05/2015). According to a 2014 survey, 39% of children have not been vaccinated against measles (UNICEF, 30/06/2015).
1.2 million children under five were estimated to be acutely malnourished as of April 2015. This revision of the planning figures is a drop from 2 million estimated at the end of September 2014 (OCHA, 23/04/2015). 500,000 children are severely malnourished in Darfur, Blue Nile, and South Kordofan (ECHO, 01/07/2015). Among localities with IDPs, where 20% of the population face severe consumptions gaps, 2.2–7% of population are severely malnourished (IPC, 01/07/2015).
Across Sudan, approximately one person in nine does not have access to a clean water supply (Kimse Yok Mu, 24/06/2015).
All refugee camps, except Dabat Bosin, are below the standard of 20L of water per person per day. There is a similarly low level of sanitation, with no latrine facilities available in Um Sangor camp in White Nile state (UNHCR, 10/07/2015). The situation deteriorated with the recent new influx of refugees from South Sudan (OCHA, 31/05/2015). In Al Alagaya and El Redis II, the population has very limited access to water (UNHCR, 05/06/2015).
20 water pumps have stopped working in El Salam camp, South Darfur, in the past five months, affecting 80,000 people (Radio Dabanga, 04/05/2015). Displaced people have also complained about a lack of available water in Gereida, South Darfur (local media, 22/06/2015). Kassab IDP camp in Kutum has been suffering from a severe shortage of drinking water since the beginning of May. Reports suggest that 11 of the 20 water pumps at the camp are non-operational (local media, 25/05/2015).
Reports suggest that there has been no regular maintenance of hand pumps in South Kordofan for up to four years (PI, 03/07/2015).
Parts of the capital Khartoum are not receiving water due to poor infrastructure. This has caused protests (local media, 22/06/2015; All Africa, 02/07/2015).
3 million children aged 5–13 are out of school in Sudan. 1.9 million are of primary-school age (UNICEF, 14/04/2015). The majority of the affected children are in Darfur, with high numbers also in Blue Nile and South Kordofan (Radio Dabanga, 14/07/2015). Schools are frequently used as shelter for IDPs (UNICEF, 30/06/2015).
200 Darfuri students have been injured in attacks at Sudanese universities in 2015. Mainly in Khartoum, the attacks involved students members of the ruling National Congress Party. The believed motivation is perceived Darfuri support for the SLM-MM. The increase in violence correlates with the re-election of President al Bashir in April (ACLED, 10/07/2015).
On 4 June, 14 Eritrean asylum seekers were kidnapped as they were transported to Shegarab refugee camp in eastern Sudan (AFP, 04/06/2015).
Mines and ERW
250 locations covering an estimated 32km2 are contaminated by mines and ERW, with the greatest concentrations in Kassala, Gedaref, Red Sea, Blue Nile, South Kordofan, and Darfur (UNMAS). South Kordofan is the most heavily mined area of Sudan, according to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor.
On 18 and 19 May at least three cases of rape were reported during attacks by the RSF in Tawila, North Darfur (local media, 19/05/2015). Reports in early November suggested that more than 200 women and girls had been raped by Sudanese soldiers in Tabit area in North Darfur. Sudanese troops denied UNAMID access to assess the situation (Reuters, 17/11/2014). Rape of IDPs by pro-government militia was frequently reported by the local media in North, South, and Central Darfur and Jebel Marra in 2014.
As of March 2014, the Sudanese Government refuses to recognise South Sudanese nationals as refugees and instead considers them to be Sudanese citizens (UNHCR, 03/04/2014). All foreigners in Sudan had to register with the immigration administration by 1 April. UNHCR has declared this constitutes an obstacle to humanitarian assistance.
Syria Country Analysis
27 July: Kurdish groups claim that Turkish forces are targeting both IS and YPG positions near Kobane (BBC).
24 July: Turkey began airstrikes in northern Syria (BBC).
24 July: The opposition alliance Southern Front launched a new offensive on Dar’a city (AFP).
- Over 230,000 deaths documented March 2011–June 2015, including over 108,000 civilians, more than 11,000 of them children (SOHR, 06/2015). In the first six months of 2015, 11,000 people were killed (SNHR, 01/07/2015).
- 12.2 million people in need of humanitarian assistance inside Syria, including 5.6 million children (OCHA/UNICEF, 12/2014).
- 7.6 million IDPs (OCHA, 28/12/2014).
- 4.8 million people live in hard-to-reach areas (OCHA, 12/2014).
- 4,013,292 Syrians refugees in neighbouring countries as of 9 July (UNHCR, 09/07/2015). Children make up 52% of the refugee population.
- 711 of 1,921 primary health centres and 37 of 92 public hospitals are out of service (Syrian Ministry of Health/UNFPA, 30/11/2014).
- 13,000 people have died in detention since March 2011, including more than 100 children, reportedly from torture (SOHR, 13/03/2015).
The conflict has killed over 230,000 people and caused large-scale displacement. Protection concerns are widespread. WASH and access to food are high priorities, as well as access to health services. Humanitarian needs in areas under prolonged and ongoing siege are particularly high because access is obstructed.
On 4 May, the Geneva III conference began. UN officials are holding separate consultations with the Syrian Government, some opposition groups, and regional powers such as Turkey and Iran. The talks are due to conclude in July (AFP, 10/06/2015).
The conflict in Syria has been ongoing since 2011, when fighting broke out between pro-government and opposition forces. The conflict later developed as more actors became involved, in particular Jabhat al Nusra (JAN), Islamic State (IS), and Kurdish armed groups such as People’s Protection Units (YPG).
Widespread conflict and high levels of violence continue, including indiscriminate aerial bombing by government forces and indiscriminate shelling by armed opposition (UNSC, 23/06/2015). Civilians have been subject to direct and indiscriminate attacks, including the widespread use of barrel bombs and other explosives in populated areas (UNSC 18/06/2015). Aleppo, Idleb, Damascus, Rural Damascus, Quneitra, and Dar’a governorates are all high-frequency conflict locations (SOHR in SNAP, 03/2015).
During June, 2,137 people were killed, including 1,722 civilians (Syrian Network for Human Rights, 01/07/2015). 6,657 people were killed in May, making it the deadliest month of 2015; 1,285 were civilians (SOHR, 01/06/2015). Over the first six months of 2015, 11,090 people were killed, according to the Syrian Network for Human Rights. Government forces are believed to be responsible for 77% of the deaths, including 6,928 civilians (Syrian Network for Human Rights, 01/07/2015).
In 2014, 76,000 people were killed in conflict, the highest toll since the war began. 18,000 civilians, including at least 3,500 children, were among the victims (SOHR, 02/01/2014). At least 6,550 civilians died in airstrikes, half of them in Aleppo. More than 230,000 people have been killed since fighting began in March 2011 and more than one million people have been wounded or suffered permanent disability (SOHR, 08/06/2015; UNICEF, 03/2015).
Government forces have control of several areas near Aleppo city, in and around Homs city, and several areas in the Qalamoun region in Rural Damascus. Government forces also control Tartous governorate, parts of As-Sweida, Dar’a, Hama, Lattakia and Quneitra governorates, and some areas in Al Hasakeh, Deir-ez Zor, and Idleb governorates (ISW, 19/06/2015).
Islamic State (IS, formerly the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant): Ar-Raqqa governorate is IS’s stronghold in Syria, and has been under IS control since October 2014. IS holds significant swathes of territory in Aleppo, Al Hasakeh, and Deir-ez-Zor, and is also fighting in Rural Damascus, Damascus, and Homs (ISW, 19/06/2015).
Democratic Union Party (PYD) and People’s Protection Units (YPG): Syrian Kurds have been in de facto control of Kurdish zones in the north since government forces withdrew mid-2012. This includes large areas of the northern parts of Al Hasakeh, Ar Raqqa, and Aleppo governorates (ISW, 19/06/2015).
Opposition alliances: The Al Qaeda-affiliated Jabhat al Nusra (JAN) controls areas in Idleb governorate (ISW, 19/06/2015). In March, JAN joined forces with several other Islamist groups to create the Jaysh al Fatah Operations Room, mainly active in Idleb governorate (ISW). In April, Ahrar al Sham, Jaysh al Islam, and five other Aleppo-based opposition groups announced the formation of the Aleppo Conquest Operations Room in Aleppo city (ISW, 28/04/2015). The Aleppo Conquest Operations Room later extended its membership to include 31 opposition groups, including factions based in Idleb and Hama (ISW, 20/05/2015). In early July, JAN and 13 other Islamist groups formed the Ansar al Sharia Operations Room in Aleppo governorate (BBC, 03/07/2015).
International intervention: As part of a multinational campaign against Islamist militant groups, a US-led coalition began airstrikes on IS and JAN military installations in September 2014. More than 2,500 people have been killed by coalition airstrikes so far, the vast majority of them IS fighters, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR, 23/05/2015).
Turkey began airstrikes in Syria on 24 July, following an alleged IS suicide bombing in the Turkish city Suruc on 20 July (BBC, 24/07/2015). Turkey has agreed to open Turkish airbases for coalition aircraft (ISW, 25/07/2015).
In June 2015, opposition alliances launched offensives against both Dar’a and Aleppo cities. According to analysts, if opposition groups seize control over either city, the stalemate that has long characterised the conflict could be overturned (ISW, 09/07/2015).
Government forces are struggling to secure and hold terrain (ISW, 24/06/2015). Since the seizure of Palmyra on 21 May, IS is in control of more than 50% of Syrian territory (SOHR, 21/05/2015). The YPG, supported by other armed groups and coalition airstrikes, are challenging IS in the north (ISW, 25/06/2015).
Aleppo: Kurdish groups are claiming that Turkish forces are targeting both YPG and IS positions near Kobane (BBC, 27/07/2015). On 2 July, the Aleppo Conquest Operations Room and the Ansar al Sharia Operations Room launched a joint assault against government forces in Aleppo city. Government forces responded with a series of airstrikes (BBC, 03/07/2015). Over 25–27 June, YPG forces repelled an IS attack on Kobane (BBC, 27/06/2015).
Al Hasakeh: On 30 June, frontlines largely stabilised in Al Hasakeh: government forces regained control over Gwerian neighbourhood and YPG regained control over Azizyeh neighbourhood. Sporadic fighting continues between government forces and IS forces in western and southern areas (OCHA 05/07/2015). On 25 June, IS launched an assault on Al Hasakeh city, following a series of suicide attacks on 24 June (ISW, 25/06/2015). As of 4 June, IS had seized all military checkpoints south of Al Hasakeh city (AFP, 04/06/2015).
Ar-Raqqa: On 6 July, clashes broke out between YPG and Turkish forces, reportedly after militants attempted to cross the border into Turkey near Tal Abyad (SOHR, 06/07/2015). On 1 July, IS forces entered the town of Tal Abyad, but YPG forces repelled the attack. YPG seized the town from IS on 15 June (Reuters, 01/7/2015; AFP, 15/06/2015). On 5 July, the US-led coalition carried out a series of airstrikes on Ar-Raqqa city, in one of its largest assaults so far (BBC, 05/07/2015). More than 35,000 people have reportedly fled fighting between YPG and IS in northern Ar-Raqqa since early June (AFP, 17/06/2015).
Damascus: Shelling continues to kill and injure civilians on a regular basis (SOHR, 22/06/2015). IS and JAN continue to fight Palestinian groups over control of Yarmouk refugee camp, which currently hosts around 18,000 Palestinian and Syrian refugees (AFP, 25/05/2015).
Dar’a: On 24 July, the opposition alliance Southern Front launched a new offensive on Dar’a city (AFP, 24/07/2015). Government airstrikes in Dar’a governorate have intensified over July (ECHO, 24/07/2015; AFP, 24/07/2015; 02/07/2015).
Homs: IS continues to expand southward from Palmyra, and is advancing towards the Eastern Qalamoun Mountains (ISW, 19/06/2015). IS took Palmyra on 21 May (BBC, 21/05/2015). Over 22–26 May, IS seized Jazal oilfield northwest of Palmyra; Sawwanah, Khunayfis, and Buhairi, west of Palmyra; and the last remaining border crossing under government control, Al Tanf (ISW, 22/05/2015; 27/05/2015).
Idleb: As of early June, government forces have lost control over most of Idleb (AFP, 04/07/2015). On 6 June, the Jaysh al Fatah Operations Room seized a number of government-held towns and villages (ISW, 19/06/2015). On 28 May, it seized the government stronghold Ariha, south of Idleb city (ISW, 28/05/2015).
Lattakia: On 19 July, government forces launched a new offensive to retake villages and cut off opposition supply lines from Turkey (Reuters, 19/07/2015).
Rural Damascus: On 5 July, government forces, supported by Lebanese Hezbollah, entered Zabadani town, considered the final JAN stronghold in Qalamoun region (Al Jazeera, 05/07/2015).
Quneitra: On 17 June, the Government claimed to have repulsed a major offensive by FSA-affiliated groups around Quneitra town (Reuters, 17/06/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Some 12.2 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance inside Syria, including 5.6 million children. The humanitarian situation appears most critical in the governorates of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqa, Rural Damascus, and Deir-ez-Zor (SNAP, 28/01/2015).
4.8 million people are living in 137 hard-to-reach areas, including up to two million children (UNICEF, 12/2014; UNFPA, 31/05/2015).
There is a trend of tit-for-tat blocking of access between IS and its opponents, making IS-controlled areas hard to reach, particularly from northern Al Hasakeh, underlining the importance of cross-border access (OCHA, 16/01/2015). Similarly, stakeholders do not allow assistance to reach people perceived to be affiliated with opposing parties, for example in government-controlled areas of Lattakia, Hama, and Idleb. Siege tactics are used by all actors in the conflict. Parties to the conflict continue to target public infrastructure and facilities, including water supply (UNICEF, 15/02/2015).
In northern Syria, fuel shortages are severely limiting transportation (MSF, 22/06/2015).
The UN’s response efforts are chronically underfunded: As of 1 July, 24% of the Strategic Response Plan for 2015 has been funded (Financial Tracking Service, 01/06/2015).
Security Incidents Involving Aid Workers
Ten aid workers have been killed and three injured since the beginning of 2015 (OCHA, 30/04/2015; Aid Worker Security Database, 20/04/2015). 77 humanitarian workers have been killed in the conflict since March 2011 (OCHA, 30/04/2015). 27 UN staff (including 24 UNRWA staff) have been detained or are missing (UNSC 21/11/2014).
Trapped and Hard-to-Reach Communities
4.8 million people live in hard-to-reach communities; an estimated 2.7 million of these live in IS controlled areas where humanitarian access continues to deteriorate (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
422,000 civilians are living in besieged areas (OCHA, 22/06/2015). An estimated 228,000 civilians are under siege in Deir-ez-Zor (OCHA, 21/04/2015). 212,000 people remain besieged in Nubul and Al Zahra in rural Aleppo; Eastern Ghouta, Daryya, and Moadamiyah in Rural Damascus; the Old City in Homs; and Yarmouk camp in Damascus (UNSC, 21/11/2014; UNICEF, 12/2014).
Armed clashes and restrictions imposed by armed groups are hampering assistance, particularly in Al Hasakeh, Ar-Raqqa, Deir-ez-Zor, and rural Hama (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). Al Hasakeh remains inaccessible by road (ICRC, 18/06/2015).
Ar-Raqqa: IS has closed the Syrian Arab Red Crescent and several small local charities, and appropriated warehouses and equipment (OCHA, 30/01/2015). Ar-Raqqa could not be reached by WFP in the first quarter of 2015 (WFP, 31/03/2015).
Damascus: As of April, a significant percentage of the 18,000 civilians in Yarmouk camp were in the area controlled by armed groups, according to UNRWA. There are no operational hospitals or medical facilities for the civilian population trapped inside the camp (Save the Children, 07/04/2015; WHO, 10/04/2015). The UN has removed Yarmouk from its list of besieged areas, despite UNRWA not having been able to deliver aid for four months (IRIN, 24/07/2015).
Deir-ez-Zor: IS has cut off access to government-controlled areas of Deir-ez-Zor, leaving an estimated 228,000 civilians under siege since February: minimal relief supplies have been airlifted into the city (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). Deir-ez-Zor could not be reached by WFP in the first quarter of 2015 (WFP, 31/03/2015).
Homs: As of 21 April, three inter-agency convoys have reached Homs governorate (Talbiseh, Al Wa’er and Ar-Rastan). Prior to this, Ar-Rastan was last reached in March 2014 (OCHA, 21/04/2015). Under partial siege since October 2013, over half of Al Waer’s 350,000 residents are IDPs; most are living in substandard accommodation (WFP, 22/10/2014).
Idleb: As of 14 April, lack of access due to insecurity continues to significantly hamper tracking of population movement, safe registration of IDPs, identification of lifesaving needs and provision of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 14/04/2015). 20,000 predominantly Shia in Foah and Kefraya towns in Idleb are cut off and surrounded (OCHA, 08/04/2015).
Rural Damascus: Zabadani town has not been accessed by humanitarian actors since 2012, and lack of food and medical supplies is reported, with fighting worsening the situation (OCHA, 07/07/2015). 40,000 people are in urgent need of basic services in Moadamiyah town, which has been cut off for several months. Little to no food or water is available; access to healthcare is lacking; and there is no electricity (ICRC, 18/06/2015).
Border closures or tight restrictions by neighbouring countries are dissuading people in life-threatening situations from seeking refuge abroad. Humanitarians have voiced concern over the inconsistent application of regulations at border crossings. Palestinian refugees are particularly affected by closed borders and forced returns from neighbouring countries (UN 24/11/2014).
The closure of the border crossing with Jordan in April has disrupted the delivery of water treatment supplies into Syria (UNICEF, 10/07/2015).
There are 7.6 million IDPs within Syria; 50% are children (OCHA 25/11/2014). There are 147 IDP camps in northern Syria, and 175,520 IDPs are sheltering in camp settlements (OCHA, 30/01/2015).
1,755,000 people are displaced in Aleppo; 1,388,000 in Rural Damascus; 918,000 in Idleb; 584,000 in Lattakia; 493,000 in Homs; 464,000 in Deir-ez-Zor; 453,000 in Hama; 437,000 in Damascus; 391,000 in Dar’a; 249,000 in Al Hasakeh; 202,000 in Tartous; 168,000 in Ar-Raqqa; 73,000 in As-Sweida; and 57,000 in Quneitra (OCHA, 02/04/2015).
Over 25–30 June an estimated 120,000 people were displaced by fighting in Al Hasakeh city (UNHCR, 12/07/2015). 16,000 people have returned after frontlines largely stabilised on 30 June; including IDPs who were unable to pass through Kurdish-controlled checkpoints as they lacked sponsorship from host communities (OCHA, 05/07/2015).
705,068 people were displaced in the first five months of 2015: 208,647 fled to Turkey, 36,922 to Lebanon, 15,641 to Iraq, and 5,295 to Jordan (OCHA, 02/06/2015). The remaining 438,563 are internally displaced (OCHA, 02/06/2015). In Aleppo, 28,000 people were displaced in June. In Da’ra city, 30,000 people were reported displaced, with some remaining in the governorate and some moving towards Jordan. In Idleb, at least 150,000 people have reportedly been displaced since late March (WFP, 17/07/2015). These numbers include people who have been displaced several times since the conflict broke out (UNICEF, 30/04/2015).
Palestinian refugees in Syria (PRS): There are 560,000 Palestine refugees (OCHA, 21/04/2015). 470,000 Palestine refugees registered with UNRWA are in need of assistance (UNRWA, 21/04/2015). Over 50% have been displaced within Syria (UNRWA 28/10/2014).
On 16 June, Khan Eshieh camp in Rural Damascus was hit by several explosive munitions, killing one Palestinian refugee and injuring an unknown number (UNRWA, 18/06/2015).
Iraqi refugees: There are an estimated 29,000 Iraqi refugees in Syria (UNHCR 25/11/2014).
Syrian Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
4,013,292 Syrians are registered as refugees in neighbouring countries as of 9 July; a million more than in September 2014 (UNHCR, 09/07/2015). Children make up 52% of the refugee population.
Turkey: 1,805,255 registered refugees (UNHCR, 09/07/2015). 23,135 refugees were registered in Turkey mid-June, having fled fighting in Tal Abyad, Ar-Raqqa, and Deir-ez-Zor (ECHO, 17/06/2015).
Lebanon: 1,172,753 refugees (UNHCR, 06/07/2015). Lebanon’s borders have been closed to Syrian refugees since October 2014. Since January 2015, Syrians wanting to enter Lebanon must apply for a visa (BBC, 05/01/2015).
Jordan: 629,128 refugees (UNHCR, 17/06/2015).
Egypt: 132,375 refugees (UNHCR, 05/07/2015).
Iraq: 251,499 refugees (UNHCR, 15/07/2015).
PRS: 42,000 have been recorded with UNRWA in Lebanon, 14,348 in Jordan (UNRWA, 02/03/2015) and 860 in Gaza. Around 4,000 are reportedly in Egypt (UNRWA 28/10/2014).
Almost 30,000 IDPs returned to their areas of origin (mostly in Dar’a) in March (OCHA, 21/04/2015). Reportedly, around 70,000 people have returned to Kobane (IRIN, 07/05/2015).
9.8 million people require food, agriculture, and livelihoods-related assistance, according to the Food Security and Livelihoods sector. Of these, around 6.8 million people live in high-priority districts and need critical food assistance (WFP, 26/03/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
Wheat production in 2015 is estimated to be 40% lower than pre-conflict levels, although higher than in 2014. It is the smallest estimated harvested wheat area since the 1960s (FAO/WFP, 23/07/2015).
Crop production has been adversely affected by high prices or lack of agricultural inputs (such as seeds, fertiliser, and fuel); damage to agricultural machinery, irrigation systems, and storage facilities; disruptions in electricity supply; and destruction of standing crops (FAO/WFP, 23/07/2015; FAO, 17/06/2015).
Food prices increased sharply in early 2015 (FAO/WFP, 23/07/2015). Since 2011, the average monthly prices of wheat flour and rice have increased 301% and 629%, respectively. In besieged areas, wheat flour and rice prices have risen by 669% and 560%, respectively. Subsidised bread prices have risen by 180%, and commercial prices by 220% (WFP, 05/2015).
Unemployment stood at 57% the last quarter of 2014; an 8% increase since early 2014 (FAO/WFP, 23/07/2015). Gross domestic product has contracted by more than 40%, and exports have fallen by 90%. Oil production has dropped by 96% (World Bank/IMF/AFP, 02/12/2014). Insecurity is hampering transportation, preventing farmers from selling their products (FAO/WFP, 23/07/2015).
Health and Nutrition
Over 2.4 million people are in need of health assistance, with highest numbers reported from Ar-Raqqa (627,600), Aleppo (475,270), and Al Hasakeh (356,200).
The number of available health professionals has fallen to approximately 45% of 2011 levels and there are severe shortages of surgeons, anaesthesiologists, laboratory professionals, and female health professionals (WHO, 27/03/2015). Local production of medicines has fallen by 70% and many lifesaving treatments are not available (WHO, 27/03/2015). Hospitals are unable to cope with the demand for surgery, due partly to the increase in the number of injured – averaging 25,000 each month (PHR, 10/2014). Since the start of the conflict, some 200,000 Syrians have died from chronic illnesses due to lack of access to treatment and medicines.
Only 43% of hospitals are fully functioning (UNICEF, 29/01/2015). Aleppo, Rural Damascus, Homs, Dar’a, and Deir-er-Zor have the highest number of non-functional public hospitals. In early July, four hospitals in Dar’a governorate closed after days of intensive airstrikes (AFP, 02/07/2015).
Health facilities in Hama and Idleb governorates have closed or drastically limited their capacity due to a lack of fuel for generators and transportation (MSF, 22/06/2015).
In Ar-Raqqa, no obstetric, gynaecological, or paediatric services are reportedly available for the 1.6 million people living there (PHR, 27/02/2015). Little to no mental health services are available (PHR, 27/02/2015).
In Idleb governorate, all three Ministry of Health-run hospitals are either non-functional or inaccessible. All pharmaceutical warehouses have been destroyed (OCHA, 14/04/2015).
Attacks on Health Workers and Facilities
In May, 15 attacks on medical facilities were registered, and ten medical personnel were killed, making it the worst month for attacks on health facilities since conflict started. According to Physicians for Human Rights, government forces were responsible for all the attacks (PHR, 18/06/2015). Missile attacks on ambulances in Aleppo have also been reported (MSF, 18/06/2015).
Since 2011, Physicians for Human Rights has recorded the killing of 633 medical personnel and 271 attacks on 202 medical facilities. Government forces were found to be responsible for 90% of attacks on medical facilities – including 51 attacks with barrel bombs – and 97% of medical personnel deaths – including 142 deaths by torture or execution (PHR, 18/06/2015).
As of July 2015, 105,866 cases of acute diarrhoea have been reported since the beginning of the year. Children are particularly at risk. The incidence of waterborne diseases will likely increase over the summer months (UNICEF 10/07/2015).
Since January 2015, 1,000 hepatitis A cases have been recorded per month (UNHCR, 10/05/2015). Some 31,400 cases of hepatitis A were reported in 2014. Hepatitis A is linked with lack of safe water and poor sanitation.
In the first weeks of July, at least 3,000 cases of diarrhoea were reported among children in Aleppo city (UNICEF, 22/07/2015).
4.6 million people are in need of WASH assistance. Six out of ten governorates report major problems in the WASH sector.
The availability of safe water is at a third of pre-crisis levels (WHO, 27/03/2015). The reliability of urban piped water is severely reduced and the quality of drinking water cannot be guaranteed due to a lack of testing facilities. Fuel shortages also affect water supply (UNICEF, 10/07/2015). Inhabitants of Aleppo were without water for three weeks due to fighting. Access was re-established on 17 July (Reuters, 18/07/2015). Water pumping stations in Idleb governorate are operating only two hours a day (UNICEF 10/07/2015). One-third of water treatment plants no longer function, and sewage treatment has halved (PHR, 10/2014; WHO/UNICEF, 22/07/2014). New waves of displacement have put further strain on water and sanitation networks (UNICEF, 10/07/2015).
500,000 people in Aleppo are struggling to access water (UNICEF, 22/07/2015).
In late 2014, 1.6 million people were in need of shelter assistance (MSNA, 30/10/2014). At least 1.2 million houses have been damaged, 400,000 of which have been totally destroyed (UNHCR, 30/10/2014). Only IDPs in government-controlled areas receive shelter response, through collective shelter rehabilitation and private shelter upgrade (UNHCR, 20/11/2014).
#IDPs from Dar’a report shelter as their priority need. Thousands of IDPs living in fields outside Dar’a city have no protection against the weather or other natural threats (OCHA, 27/06/2015).
In IDP camps in northern Syria, assessments have found that the proliferation of snakes and scorpions is a continuing issue (Assistance Coordination Unit, 31/05/2015).
Between 2.1 and 2.4 million school-aged children are currently out of school (OCHA, 22/06/2015).
In areas of prolonged active conflict, education enrolment is estimated to be around 6% (Save the Children, 03/2015). The primary reason for student drop-out is the need to work to support the family. Around 90% of schools in Idleb city have stopped functioning due to violent conflict (OCHA, 14/04/2015).
Between 5,000 and 14,000 schools have been damaged, destroyed or occupied since March 2011 (Save the Children, 03/2015).
Non-state armed groups continue to commit violations, including summary executions. Ethnic and religious communities in IS-occupied areas have been targeted directly (UN Human Rights Council 11/2014). Human and organ trafficking are reported (UNHCR 20/11/2014).
According to Human Rights Watch, IS forces deliberately targeted civilians when they entered Kobane on 25 June. Around 250 civilians were killed; the vast majority believed to be Kurds (HRW, 03/07/2015).
The Druze population, a religious minority that makes up about 3% of Syria’s population, is increasingly targeted. On 11 June, JAN forces shot and killed 20 Druze in Idleb governorate (Reuters, 11/06/2015).
Various opposition groups, including JAN, Kurdish groups, and IS have been found to recruit children (NOREF, 16/02/2015). In 2015, IS has trained over 400 children as fighters (AFP, 24/03/2015). 52 children recruited by IS have been killed so far in 2015 (31 in July alone), including 16 who were used in suicide bombings (SOHR, 15/07/2015). The YPG has recruited 59 children since June 2014 (HRW, 15/07/2015).
Abduction and Detention
Over June, 59 people were reported to have died from torture in official and unofficial detention centres, with government forces responsible for 57 cases (Syrian Network for Human Rights, 03/07/2015). Since the start of the conflict, 11,500 people have died from torture while in detention; government forces were responsible for 99% of cases (Syrian Network for Human Rights, 26/06/2015).
200,000 people are estimated to be in government detention, including 20,000 detainees who are unaccounted for (SOHR/HRW, 02/12/2014). 13,000 people have died in Government detention since March 2011, including more than 100 children, reportedly from torture (SOHR, 13/03/2015).
Some 7,000 government troops held by opposition forces are unaccounted for (SOHR, 07/2014). Another 1,500 IS, other opposition, and Kurdish fighters were kidnapped during battles in the first half of 2014 (AFP, 07/2014).
IS is holding more than 400 civilians in Deir-Ez-Zor, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Al Hasakeh, Ar-Raqqa, and Rural Damascus (SOHR, 28/06/2015).
Sexual and Gender-based Violence
Forced marriage of girls to IS fighters and the selling of abducted girls into sexual slavery have been reported (UN Human Rights Council, 14/11/2014).
Kurdish forces reported that IS used chemical weapons in late June when attacking their positions. The attacks could not be verified (Reuters 18/07/2105).
Several chemical attacks have been reported in 2015, including chlorine-filled barrel bombs (Syrian American Medical Society Foundation, 08/05/2015, HRW, 03/06/2015). In May, OPCW inspectors reported having found traces of VX and sarin nerve agents at an undeclared site (AFP, 08/05/2015).
Mines and ERW
Large quantities of unexploded ordnance and many booby-trapped houses in the eastern sector of Kobane city and the surrounding countryside are preventing return (OCHA, 17/02/2015). Since late January, there have been 45 explosions and 66 people killed, the vast majority of them civilians, according to a demining NGO (IRIN, 07/05/2015).
Journalists and other media workers are systematically targeted. Over May, ten media activists were reported killed, three kidnapped and 12 injured (Syrian Network for Human Rights, 02/06/2015).
Yemen Country Analysis
25 July: The Saudi-led coalition declared a unilateral ceasefire, although fighting continues (AFP).
23 July: Intense fighting has moved from Aden, after it was taken by government forces on 17 July, to Taizz, Lahj, Abyan, and Al Dhalee governorates (IRIN; OCHA).
21 July: 365 children have been reported killed since conflict escalated in March (UNICEF).
- 21.1 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
- 12.2 million people are directly affected by the conflict (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
- 12.9 million people are food insecure (IPC Indicative Analysis, 18/06/2015). Six million people are estimated to be severely food insecure (OCHA, 05/06/2015).
- More than 15 million people lack access to healthcare (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
- 1 million children under five are acutely malnourished; 280,000 are severely malnourished (OCHA, UNICEF 06/2014).
- At least 20 million people lack access to clean water. Since the escalation of the crisis, 9.4 million people have lost access to safe water (OCHA, 05/06/2015).
- 1,267,590 IDPs and 258,000 refugees in the country (OCHA, 06/07/2015; 16/05/2015).
80% of the population is in need of humanitarian assistance. The highest priority humanitarian needs include WASH, food, and access to health services. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee has declared Yemen a Level 3 emergency based on the severe humanitarian situation.
Yemen’s political transition has turned into armed conflict between Houthis from the north and the Government. Southern secessionists, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), and Islamic State activity throughout the country compound the security and political challenges.
Instability and violence continue across the country. In February 2015, the Houthis dissolved Parliament and replaced the Government with a presidential council. The move was condemned as a coup by other parties and Yemen’s neighbours. President Hadi fled to Aden, and later to Saudi Arabia (BBC, 27/03/2015; AFP, 21/02/2015). Members of the cabinet were released in March, after almost two months of house arrest (NYT, 16/03/2015).
Several peace talks have been conducted with no agreement. The last round of UN-led talks including government and Houthi representatives concluded in Geneva on 19 June, with no agreement (AFP, 19/06/2015).
As of 13 July, there have been 3,560 registered deaths from conflict and 15,811 injuries since March (OCHA, 13/07/2015; 06/07/2015). Civilians account for 1,528 of those killed and 3,605 of the injured (OHCHR, 07/07/2015). These numbers are expected to be much higher due to underreporting (OCHA, 25/05/2015). Between 17 June and 3 July, at least 92 civilians were killed and 179 civilians were injured (OHCHR, 07/07/2015).
On 25 July, the Saudi-led coalition declared a five-day unilateral ceasefire, but fighting continues (AFP, 26/07/2015; 25/07/2015). A six-day humanitarian pause between 11–17 July failed to hold (AFP, 13/07/2015).
Conflict escalated significantly from 23 March, affecting 20 of Yemen’s 22 governorates (IOM, 22/05/2015). After Aden was taken by pro-government troops on 17 July, intense fighting has now moved to Lahj, Taizz, Abyan, and Al Dhalee governorates (OCHA, 20/07/2015; BBC, 17/07/2015). Houthis control Sa’ada, Hajjah, Al Hudaydah, Al Mahwit, Amran, Sanaa, Al Jawf, Dhamar, and Ibb governorates. They also control most of Lahj governorate.
The pro-government forces, supported by Saudi-led coalition airstrikes, are aiming at regaining control over Houthi- and AQAP-controlled areas. President Hadi is in charge of government forces from his exile in Saudi Arabia, however several ministers have returned to Aden as of late July (Al Jazeera, 23/07/2015). The Yemeni army is deeply divided, with units loyal to President Hadi fighting pro-Houthi units (ABC 15/04/2015).
The Houthis, also referred to as Ansar Allah, are based in Sa’ada governorate. The Houthis seized the capital in September 2014. They have taken up arms before, citing political, economic, and religious marginalisation (Al Jazeera, 16/11/2009). Certain factions in the Yemeni army have allied themselves with the Houthis against President Hadi, including members of the former central security force, a unit seen as loyal to former President Saleh (Reuters, 12/03/2015; ABC, 23/03/2015). Estimates put the number of Houthi militants at around 20,000–30,000 (Al Jazeera, 04/03/2015).
Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and Ansar al Sharia
AQAP is based in the south and east of the country. Ansar al Sharia has gained a foothold in the south and is believed to be a local branch of AQAP (ICG, 27/02/2015). According to the national security service, there are around 1,000 Al Qaeda militants in Yemen from 11 Arab and non-Arab countries (AFP, 17/01/2015). On 16 June, it was confirmed that a US drone strike killed Nasir al Wuhayshi, AQAP’s leader (USA Today, 16/06/2015).
A Saudi-led coalition began airstrikes in support of pro-Hadi forces on 26 March. UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Jordan, Morocco, Sudan, and Egypt are also participating in the coalition (CNN, 29/03/2015). Saudi Arabia claims that Iran backs Houthi militants financially and materially, a claim the Iranian Government denies (Amnesty 26/03/2015).
Security Incidents and Conflict Developments
Cluster munitions have been used by the Saudi-led coalition in airstrikes on Sa’ada governorate (Human Rights Watch, 03/05/2015). In some areas, there have been reports of indiscriminate shelling of houses (OCHA, 04/05/2015). Clashes and airstrikes continue.
Sanaa: On 6 July, the Saudi-led coalition targeted the offices of the GPC. Over late June and early July, IS claimed responsibility for several bombs targeting Shi’ite mosques (France24, 21/07/2015; AFP, 07/07/2015; ABC, 20/06/2015).
Aden: On 23 July, Aden airport was hit by rockets, allegedly fired by Houthi militants, one day after reopening (AFP, 23/07/2015). The city has been taken by pro-government forces, with support from Saudi-led airstrikes (BBC, 17/07/2015).
Al Jawf: Heavy ground fighting continues (Logistics Cluster, 19/06/2015). On 14 June, Houthis took control of Al Hazm, the main city of the governorate (AFP, 15/06/2015).
Hadramaut: On 11 July, a US drone strike killed ten suspected AQAP militants in Mukalla (AFP, 11/07/2015).
Lahj: Intense fighting continues between Houthi and pro-government forces. Lahj is considered the new frontline (IRIN, 23/07/2015).
Sa’ada: Airstrikes and clashes continue (AFP, 12/07/2015). Sa’ada city has been experiencing indiscriminate aerial bombardment. Civilian infrastructure, including the post office, bank, the main market area and phone network have been hit, and civilians have fled (OCHA, 05/2015).
Taizz: Fighting in Taizz city has intensified in the last weeks (ECHO, 22/07/2015; AFP, 12/07/2015; 11/07/2015). Houthi forces seized part of Taizz city and its military airbase on 23 March (BBC, 22/03/2015; ABC, 23/03/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
An estimated 21.1 million people, 80% of the population, are in need of humanitarian aid (OCHA, 10/06/2015). 50% are under 18 years old (OCHA, 05/03/2015). 12.2 million people are estimated to be directly affected by the conflict (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Access to safe drinking water, healthcare, and other basic services continues to decline – particularly in Aden, Al Dhalee, Lahj, Sa’ada, Sanaa, and Taizz governorates (USAID, 12/06/2015).
Insecurity and fuel shortages are significantly hampering humanitarian operations (OCHA, 30/06/2015). Humanitarian access constraints are particularly severe in Sa’ada, followed by Lahj, Aden, Al Dhalee, Taizz, Abyan, Shabwah, Marib, and Al Jawf (OCHA, 19/06/2015).
It is extremely difficult to move within the country (MSF, 01/04/2015). An estimated 490,000 people in Sa’ada cannot be reached by humanitarian assistance, most of whom have limited or no access to medical services, clean water, food, and communication (OCHA, 22/05/2015). Other northern governorates such as Hajjah and Amran also have limited access (OCHA, 29/05/2015). Roads in and around Aden are either inaccessible or difficult to access due to insecurity (Logistics Cluster, 06/07/2015).
Many aid agencies have suspended activities and evacuated their staff (IRIN, 27/03/2015). The arms embargo on the Houthis has also impacted the supply of humanitarian relief (AFP, 02/05/2015).
Since violence escalated, three volunteers with the Yemen Red Crescent have been killed (OCHA, 07/04/2015).
Delivering supplies by road is becoming increasingly difficult due to numerous checkpoints and roadblocks (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Roads connecting Sanaa to Aden, Taizz, Al Dhalee, and Lahj have become gradually inaccessible (WFP, 27/04/2015).
The closure of airspace over Yemen is severely restricting air operations, as are other limitations in neighbouring airspace zones (Logistics Cluster, 06/07/2015). Sanaa and Seiyun are the only open airports (Logistics Cluster, 19/07/2015). Aden airport reopened on 22 July (AFP, 22/07/2015).
The Yemeni government-in-exile has formally banned ships from entering the country’s waters without prior inspection (IRIN, 17/04/2015). Access to Aden’s ports is still limited. An 11-day delay is reported at Al Hudaydah for offloading cargo. The delays are caused by fuel and staff shortages in addition to an increase in traffic. Mokah, Al Salif and Al Mukalla ports are operating with limited access and delays (Logistics Cluster, 19/07/2015). Congestion at Djibouti port is also a major constraint in delivering humanitarian assistance, with an average delay of 11 days (Logistics Cluster, 11/07/2015).
The amount of fuel currently in Yemen is estimated to be 20% of what is needed (Oxfam, 14/07/2015). Diesel prices are 1,056% higher than before the conflict (OCHA, 13/07/2015). The fuel shortage is creating severe challenges for the transportation of food, water, and medical supplies, and the operation of water pumps and generators (ECHO, 14/05/2015). On average, Yemenis have less than one hour of electricity per day, due to fuel shortages (OCHA, 05/06/2015). Water processing plants in Sanaa city have closed (Logistics Cluster, 30/04/2015). Telephone networks continue to be subject to extended cuts or outages (UNICEF, 19/05/2015).
Several waves of conflict, lack of access, and the fluidity of displacement make it extremely difficult to estimate displacement figures and needs.
As of early July, 1,267,590 people have been internally displaced since the escalation of conflict, a 24% increase since mid-June (OCHA, 06/07/2015). This includes 298,788 people in Hajjah, 227,414 in Al Dhalee, and 184,100 in Aden (IOM, 09/07/2015).
IDPs and host community members are in urgent need of food, shelter, health services, and fuel in several governorates, including Hadramaut, Al Mahwit, and Taizz (IOM, 23/07/2015).
Most IDPs are staying with friends and family (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Hajjah (300,000), Al Dhalee (227,000) and Aden (184,000) host the largest number of IDPs (OCHA, 13/07/2015). Internal displacement has put 200,000 host community members in need of assistance themselves (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Refugees and Migrants
Estimates indicate that over 883,000 returnees, refugees, and migrants in Yemen currently require assistance, including Yemeni migrants deported from Saudi Arabia (OCHA, 12/06/2015). There are 257,645 registered refugees in Yemen: most are Somali (236,803); 5,934 are Ethiopian (Mixed Migration Secretariat, 28/02/2015). At least 2,000 Syrian refugees have been registered in Yemen since August 2014: more than 10,000 Syrians are thought to be in the country (OCHA, 05/11/2014).
10,500 people have arrived in Yemen since March, mostly from Somalia and Ethiopia (UNHCR, 14/07/2015). In June, around 400 migrants and refugees arrived, in contrast to 4,000 in April, and approximately 10,000 in March (IOM, 03/07/2015; OCHA, 12/06/2015). Many recent new arrivals reported that they were unaware of the security situation in Yemen before arriving. Others reported that they were aware of the situation, and still preferred it to the situation in their country of origin (UNHCR, 03/07/2015). In 2014, nearly 91,600 refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants arrived in Yemen, a 40% increase compared to 2013, according to IOM. Migrants and refugees have reported abduction, torture, physical assault, and rape as common forms of abuse (Mixed Migration Secretariat, 28/02/2015).
Conflict in areas close to refugee-hosting sites have resulted in further displacement of refugees and asylum seekers, loss of livelihoods, and a breakdown in basic services (OCHA, 19/06/2015). In Kharaz refugee camp in Lahj governorate, food rations have run out, the school is closed, health facilities are shutting down, and a general lack of basic services is reported (UNHCR, 19/06/2015).
Yemeni Refugees and Migrants in Other Countries
Since March 2015, almost 50,000 people, consisting of Yemenis, returnees, and third-country nationals (TCNs) have left Yemen (UNHCR, 03/07/2015). As of 23 July, 21,204 have arrived in Djibouti and 25,002 in Somalia (IOM, 23/07/2015).
12.9 million people are food insecure, 2.3 million more than before the escalation of the crisis in March (Indicative IPC Analysis, 18/06/2015). 6.07 million people (22.7% of the population) face Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes, mainly in Saa’da, Aden, Abyan, Shabwah, Hajjah, Al Hudaydah, Taizz, Lahj, Al Dhalee, and Al Bayda, while 6.8 million people (25.7%) are in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), according to the June 2015 IPC Analysis. This has been a 21% increase in food insecurity since last year (Indicative IPC Analysis, 18/06/2015). The situation is expected to further deteriorate as long as insecurity continues to severely constrain access and household purchasing power falls (Indicative IPC Analysis, 18/06/2015; FEWSNET, 30/06/2015).
While Yemen ordinarily imports 90% of its food, imports of staple foods, such as cereals, have almost completely ceased since the escalation of conflict (OCHA, 29/05/2015). Cooking gas is unavailable in Aden and Taizz and only sparsely available in 13 other governorates (OCHA, 13/07/2015). The price of cooking gas has increased by more than 300% since March (OCHA, 17/06/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
In the worst conflict-affected areas, including Sa’ada, Lahj, Taizz, Al Dhalee, and Abyan, crops, storage, and irrigation facilities have been significantly damaged (FAO, 23/06/2015). Lack of fuel and insecurity are preventing the delivery of goods from ports to markets (FEWSNET, 18/06/2015).
Food prices have increased by 40–100% since the start of the crisis, with the highest prices in southwestern governorates (FAO, 08/07/2015). Acute fuel shortages have affected food prices (WFP, 10/04/2015). Damage to greenhouses in the northwest is likely to affect vegetable production (FAO, 21/07/2015).
Wheat is unavailable in Aden and only sparsely available in 14 other governorates (OCHA, 13/07/2015). Grain milling has ceased for lack of fuel (OCHA, 19/06/2015). It is increasingly difficult to store and transport fruit and vegetables due to fuel shortages. Fuel shortages have also affected transportation of livestock (FAO, 23/06/2015). In the Tihamah coastal region, livestock vaccines are no longer available. Lack of fuel has halted animal feed production (FAO, 23/06/2015).
95% of local supermarkets are reportedly closed, affecting in particular people in urban settings (OCHA, 22/05/2015). Most bakeries in Aden have shut down due to wheat and fuel shortages (OCHA, 30/06/2015).
Incomes in IDP and host communities are dwindling, affected people are resorting to negative coping mechanisms, such as selling their belongings, to meet everyday needs (OCHA, 10/06/2015). Many families have lost their sources of income, and can no longer afford sufficient or nutritious food (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Farmers are struggling to sustain their income due to high input costs and low output prices (FAO, 23/06/2015). More than 500,000 people have been affected by disruption of fishing, caused by insecurity, lack of fuel causing spoilage, and market disruption (OCHA, 06/07/2015; FAO, 08/07/2015).
Health and Nutrition
About 15.2 million people lack access to basic healthcare, 40% more than in March (OCHA, 03/06/2015; 14/06/2015). At least 160 health facilities have been closed since March (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Mobile health teams in Amran, Al Baydah, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf and Sa’ada governorates are unable to operate (OCHA, 22/05/2015). In Taizz governorate, 122 of 200 health facilities remain functional (UNICEF, 21/07/2015).
Health staff are increasingly unable to report to work. Non-Yemenis make up at least 25% of health workers and their evacuation has added to shortages (WHO, 27/04/2015). Prior to the escalation of the crisis, qualified medical staff were already in short supply.
Since the escalation of the conflict, there have been nine incidents of violence against staff and in health facilities and care workers and 65 incidents against health facilities (OCHA, 14/06/2015). There are also reports of ambulances being commandeered by militias (OCHA, 29/05/2015). 53 health facilities have been damaged since March, including 17 hospitals (WHO, 19/06/2015).
Ambulance services are non-functional in most areas heavily affected by conflict due to fuel shortages and security threats (OCHA, 14/06/2015). Medicines for diabetes, hypertension and cancer are no longer available and there are acute shortages in critical medical supplies – trauma kits, medicines, blood bags and other necessities (OCHA, 12/06/2015). The only operational hospital in Amran governorate has reported that it is on the verge of running out of medical supplies (OCHA, 06/07/2015). Prior to the conflict, Yemen imported 80% of its medical supplies (OCHA, 30/06/2015). The only oxygen generating plant in Yemen has ceased to function due to lack of fuel (OCHA, 19/04/2015).
Outbreak response, including surveillance and early response, is no longer functioning (OCHA, 13/07/2015; 14/06/2015). 900 health facilities, 25% of Yemen’s health facilities, are no longer conducting routine vaccination (UNICEF, 07/07/2015). 87 out of 333 districts lack a functioning cold room to keep vaccines cold (UNICEF, 07/07/2015). Fear of disease outbreaks may lead to further displacement (OCHA, 30/06/2015).
Dengue and Malaria
A significant surge in suspected dengue fever has been reported in six governorates: Al Hudaydah, Taizz, Aden, Lahj, Shabwah, and Hadramaut (WHO, 21/06/2015). Poor WASH conditions are a contributing factor (OCHA, 30/06/2015). Over 8,000 cases of dengue, including 590 deaths, have been reported in Aden since April (OCHA, 30/06/2015). On average, 150 new cases of dengue fever are reported every day in Aden, with 11 deaths daily (OCHA, 30/06/2015). Insecurity has prevented awareness campaigns in the affected areas (UNICEF, 07/07/2015). The population is afraid of seeking health services if the situation is not life threatening (UNICEF, 07/07/2015).
The malaria season is expected to begin in July, and insecurity is preventing vector control (OCHA, 30/06/2015). Due to lack of electricity and medical supplies, laboratory testing for dengue and malaria is challenging (OCHA, 30/06/2015).
Measles and Rubella
Possible measles outbreaks are currently being investigated in Al Jawf and Sa’ada governorates (40 and almost 300 suspected cases, respectively). Over 365 cases of measles and over 90 cases of rubella have been diagnosed in Yemen over the past year (OCHA, 14/06/2015). 12 cases of measles were reported between 3 and 9 July (OCHA, 13/07/2015).
1.6 million children under five are estimated to suffer from acute malnutrition, including 400,000 potential SAM cases (OCHA, 13/07/2015; 12/06/2015). Since March, there has been a 150% increase in hospital admissions for malnutrition (WHO, 19/06/2015). 1.6 million children and pregnant or lactating women are in need of services to treat or prevent acute malnutrition (UNICEF, 07/07/2015). In 2014, 840,000 children under five were acutely malnourished, according to the Nutrition Cluster; 170,000 were severely malnourished (Comprehensive Food Security Survey, 11/2014).
At least 20 million people lack access to clean water (WHO, 19/06/2015). Since the escalation of the crisis, 9.4 million people have lost access to safe water due to fuel shortages (OCHA, 05/06/2015). Diesel needed to deliver public water and sanitation is either not available or only sporadically in 20 of 22 governorates (OCHA, 13/07/2015). Millions of people are receiving less than an hour of uninterrupted water supply per day.
Public water networks in eight major cities are at imminent risk of collapse (OCHA, 19/06/2015). In the south, the lack of power combined with damaged water pumps have forced people to resort to water collection from unprotected and abandoned wells. Water trucks do not have fuel to make deliveries (OCHA, 22/05/2015). The high price of water is a major concern for poor households (Thomson Reuters Foundation, 29/06/2015).
Solid waste collection has been suspended and sewage treatment plants have reduced operations in several major cities (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Garbage has been accumulating on the streets (UNICEF, 07/07/2015).
Lack of drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities have been reported in sites hosting IDPs in Al Jawf and Marib governorates (OCHA, 23/05/2015).
Prior to the escalation of the crisis, 12.1 million were without access to improved sanitation, and 4.4 million lacked access to adequate sanitation (OCHA, 28/02/2015).
1.2 million people are in need of emergency shelter or essential household items (OCHA, 12/06/2015).
The majority of IDPs are hosted by relatives. Some families are reportedly hosting up to six or seven displaced (IOM, 22/05/2015). IDPs in Sanaa staying with host families are reporting overcrowding and lack of adequate WASH facilities (OCHA, 22/05/2015).
In southern Yemen, IDPs are staying in public buildings, such as schools or health facilities, open spaces or makeshift shelters (IOM, 22/05/2015). In Amran, many IDPs are reported to be living in the open; fear of airstrikes is preventing them from taking shelter in public buildings (OCHA, 10/05/2015). Members of the marginalised Muhamasheen community and other vulnerable IDPs have settled in old houses and other inadequate structures (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
In Al Jawf and Marib governorates, IDPs are primarily staying with host families or in abandoned facilities, including schools. Overcrowding and lack of food and adequate WASH facilities have been reported (OCHA, 23/05/2015). In Hajjah, Al Hudaydah and Abyan governorates, IDPs are living in open spaces or in tents and other improvised shelters. Many IDPs in Lahj live in schools or health facilities (OCHA, 19/04/2015).
Refugees who were previously self-reliant are now dependent on humanitarian assistance and unable to afford adequate shelters in urban areas, leading to overcrowding (OCHA, 19/06/2015).
2.9 million children require emergency access to education (OCHA, 10/06/2015). 47% of school-aged children are out of school due to disruptions linked to the conflict (UNICEF, 21/07/2015). Over 5,150 schools – 70% of all schools – have closed since March (OCHA, 13/07/2015; Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, 11/06/2015). No schools are operating in Sanaa city, Sa’ada, Hajjah, Al Hudaydah, Mahwit, Aden, Al Bayda or Marib governorates. In Taizz governorate, more than 160,000 children are unable to attend school due to conflict (OCHA, 29/05/2015).
248 schools have been damaged by the conflict, 68 schools are occupied by armed groups, and 270 are hosting IDPs (UNICEF, 21/07/2015). The Saudi-led coalition has stated that schools are legitimate targets if used for military purposes, and have targeted school buildings claimed to be hosting military equipment (Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, 11/06/2015).
In schools hosting IDPs, classroom equipment, such as desks and benches, is being used for firewood (UNICEF, 23/06/2015).
Prior to the conflict, an estimated 2.5 million children were not in school (OCHA, 04/2014).
11.4 million people are in need of protection assistance, including about 7.3 million children (OCHA, 12/06/2015).
Uuse of explosive weapons in populated areas, attacks on civilian infrastructure, increased recruitment of children, and attacks against humanitarian workers have been reported since the conflict escalated in March (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Protesters against the Houthi takeover have been illegally detained and tortured, according to several reports (AFP, 14/02/2015; Amnesty, 16/02/2015).
Over January, 1,490 migrants and refugees arriving in Yemen were reportedly abducted. 234 were women. A further 243 migrants and refugees reported being physically assaulted and 63 reported robbery or extortion (RMMS, 31/01/2015).
Due to their marginalisation, the Muhamasheen minority have greater humanitarian needs than the average population (UNICEF, 20/02/2015).
As of 21 July, 365 children have been reported killed and 484 injured (UNICEF, 21/07/2015).
Up to 30% of fighters in armed groups are children (OCHA, 22/12/2014). Since the escalation of the conflict, 159 boys have been confirmed as recruited by armed groups (OCHA, 12/06/2015). Houthis, Ansar al Sharia, AQAP and state forces are all recruiting children (Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, 01/10/2014). Armed children guard checkpoints throughout Sa’ada, Ibb, Hudaydah, and Amran (UNICEF, 31/12/2014; 20/01/2015).
About 100,000 women are predicted to require support related to gender-based violence in 2015. GBV in Yemen remains critically underreported (OCHA, 22/12/2014).
Mines and ERW
Landmines and explosive remnants of war are a major concern in northern governorates. Since March, incidents of civilians wounded in cluster munition attacks in Sada’a governorate have been reported (Human Rights Watch, 31/05/2015). In Lahj, local partners report that AQAP has placed landmines in Al Hamra area of Al Hawta district in order to guard against any Houthi advance (OCHA 31/03/2015). The Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC) has confirmed the presence of cluster munition remnants in four districts on the border between Sada’a governorate and Saudi Arabia (Cluster Monitor, 04/12/2014).
28 July: 2,000 extra troops were deployed to fight Boko Haram in the Far North, raising the total to 8,500. Five attacks have occurred since 20 July (AFP).
25 July: 19 people were killed in a suicide attack in Maroua (Reuters).
- 2.1 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 17/12/2014).
- 320,330 refugees have arrived from CAR, Niger, and Nigeria (UNHCR, 08/07/2015; OCHA, 31/03/2015; 16/06/2015).
- An estimated 1.08 million people are food insecure in 2015 (OCHA, 16/06/2015).
Conflict in both Nigeria and CAR continues to displace vulnerable refugees to Cameroon, and the spillover from the Boko Haram conflict in Nigeria in particular threatens security in Cameroon. Some 2.1 million people, 10% of the population, are in need of humanitarian assistance, primarily in the Far North, North, Adamawa, and East regions.
The armed Islamist group Boko Haram (BH), based in Nigeria, intensified attacks in Cameroon from December 2014 (ECHO, 06/01/2015). BH militants crossed into the Far North region from Lake Chad, attacking towns and villages, military vehicles, kidnapping individuals, and attempting to control the army. Cross-border raids have continued, aimed at obtaining food and livestock. While attacks are concentrated in the Far North region, they have spread southward (AFP, 06/04/2015). There have been at least 37 BH attacks in northern Cameroon since January 2015, including five since 20 July (ACLED, 27/07/215).
A military force from Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon and Benin will deploy by 30 July in response to the increase in cross-border attacks (AFP, 13/07/2015). In the meantime, 2,000 troops are being deployed to the Far North, raising the total to 8,500 (AFP, 28/07/2015).
The United States is supplying equipment and logistics training to the Cameroonian military, aiding its efforts to counter BH (VoA, 12/12/2014; Reuters, 17/02/2015). Operations against BH have included air and ground offensives and are ongoing as of 18 June (Daily Mail, 14/01/2015; New York Times, 05/02/2015).
Boko Haram cross-border attacks are increasing, as the group seeks food supplies and escaping Nigerian and regional forces. Authorities believe the militant group is opting for isolated but targeted attacks in villages or highways (OCHA, 15/06/2015). 19 were killed on another suicide attack in Maroua on 25 July (Reuters, 25/07/2015). On 22 July, a suicide attack in Maroua, Far North region left 11 dead (AFP, 22/07/2015). On 12 July, twin suicide bombings in Fotokol near an army camp left 11 dead and seven injured (AFP, 13/07/2015).
The Cameroonian army has pushed BH back from Bodo town in Chad (Reuters, 09/07/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
2.1 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 17/12/2014).
The limited number of humanitarian actors involved in the response in the Far North has made comprehensive humanitarian intervention almost impossible.
Bad road conditions delay the provision of assistance.
The deterioration of the security situation has made access to the Far North extremely difficult. Although the Cameroonian army retook the border towns, the area remains insecure, and armed groups are present (OCHA, 10/04/2015). UN agencies have only been undertaking priority activities such as assisting refugees and some host communities, according to WFP (IRIN, 15/08/2014). Organisations like UNHCR do not have access to certain localities where refugees are present (UNHCR, 25/01/2015).
Heavy rains in Douala have flooded 60,000 hectares of land, displacing 2,000 and directly affecting 30,000 (IRIN, 03/07/2015; Reuters 26/06/2015). The number displaced is a more precise estimate compared to original numbers, which accounted for the population of the area affected.
At June 2015, there were 325,300 displaced people in Cameroon, including 243,600 refugees from CAR and 74,000 from Nigeria (OCHA, 16/06/2015). As of end June, there are approximately 81,700 IDPs in Far North region displaced due to BH attacks (OCHA, 16/06/2015). As attacks increase, people are moving toward central Cameroon (OCHA, 06/01/2015).
As of June, there were 81,700 IDPs in the Far North region (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015). 33,900 are in Mayo-Tsanaga department, 32,680 in Logone-et-Chari, 12,480 in Mayo-Sava, and 2,630 in Diamare (UNHCR and IOM, 19/06/2015). 36% live with host families, 28% live in shared housing and the rest in improvised, damaged, or public buildings. Food security, WASH, and health are the priority needs (UNHCR and IOM, 19/06/2015). Nearly half of the IDPs are displaced within the same department but a different arrondissement (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015). 35,960 people have returned to their place of origin (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015; OCHA, 16/06/2015).
Refugees from the Central African Republic
As of July 2015 there were 246,330 CAR refugees in Cameroon (UNHCR, 08/07/2015; OCHA 22/06/2015; 16/06/2015). 159,900 are in the East, 63,100 in Adamaoua, 10,100 in Centre, 7,700 in Littoral, and 2,800 in North (OCHA, 16/06/2015). 55% live in camps, 45% are with host communities (UNHCR, 05/06/2015). Many refugees have crossed without being registered. A reduced flow of refugees indicates an improved situation in CAR, but many people are reluctant to go home because they are concerned about food security and livelihoods (VoA, 16/03/2015).
Refugees from Nigeria
74,000 Nigerians are estimated to have fled to northern Cameroon since May 2013 (UNHCR, 20/04/2015; OCHA, 28/05/2015; 16/06/2015). Due to the heightened security situation in the Far North, the government has begun registering Nigerian refugees in the immediate border area. There are an estimated 12,000‑17,000 unregistered refugees (UN, 31/07/2015).
As of 22 July, there are 43,490 Nigerian refugees are registered in Minawao camp, Far North region, originally set up for 15,000 (UNHCR, 22/07/2015). The number of Nigerian refugees in the camp is increasing at a rate of 100 new registered refugees per day (UN, 31/07/2015). The number of daily arrivals had decreased from 400 per day in April-May to 60-70 daily in June (FAO, 30/06/2015). 2,700 individuals arrived in Minawao spontaneously in June, coming from Nigeria and insecure camps along the border (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
There have been 5,150 new arrivals at the camp since 1 April, and 26,000 new Nigerian refugees in total since 30 December 2014 (UNICEF, 28/05/2015; UNHCR, 23/05/2015).
87% of refugees in the camp have access to adequate shelter and the needs among refugees are largely WASH, shelter, health and education (UNHCR, 23/05/2015; UNHCR, 15/04/2015).
There are 12,490 registered refugees living outside the camp (UNHCR, 30/06/2015). People living outside the camp do not receive humanitarian assistance and lack of identification is a concern (UNHCR, 25/03/2015).
In most locations, the number of refugees and third-country nationals exceeds the local population. Host communities and refugees are competing over already inadequate resources and living conditions have become very difficult for host communities (FAO, 11/12/2014).
20% of individuals arriving from Nigeria are estimated to be returnees (UN, 21/07/2015).
As of June, 1.08 million people are food insecure, mostly in the Far North, North, Adamawa, and East regions, with 244,000 in severe food insecurity (OCHA, 16/06/2015; Reuters; 29/05/2015). 195,600 people are severely food insecure (OCHA, 16/06/2015). 54% of households in the Far North and North regions face shortages. 70% of farmers in the Far North have deserted their farms and missed out on planting (AFP, 28/01/2015).
Dryness in the Sahel belt and the strain of hosting so many refugees are also affecting food security (ECHO, 06/01/2015).
Food Security in the Sahel
In the Sahel and West Africa about 7.5 million people, including 4.5 million in the Sahel, will be in food and nutrition crisis between June and August (Cadre Harmonisé, 06/2015). In 2014, food insecurity rose dramatically to 24.7 million food insecure people, compared to 2013, when 11.3 million people had inadequate food (OCHA, 03/02/2015).
Health and Nutrition
As of September 2014, 6.8 million people are in need of health services (IOM, 09/2014). 69,900 children are suffering SAM (OCHA, 16/06/2015).
Cameroon's Far North, North, Adamawa, and East regions suffer chronic shortages of health workers. 46% of health centres do not have access to electricity and 70% do not have piped water (Inter Press Service, 19/08/2014).
Acute respiratory infections and malaria are the leading causes of death in refugee camps (UNHCR, 01/03/2015). Malaria is the main health issue among the approximately 30,000 refugees and 40,000 IDPs scattered around Kousseri, the capital of Logone-et-Chari department, Far North region (MSF, 29/05/2015).
CAR refugees mostly suffer from malnutrition, malaria, and respiratory infections, according to an ECHO needs assessment. A number of measles cases have been reported among child refugees.
In the Northwest region of Cameroon, a measles epidemic has affected more than 300 children and caused several deaths in the first week of July, a result of not vaccinating children (VoA, 11/07/2015).
There are 70,000 SAM cases nationally, and 190,000 MAM cases among children under five (OCHA, 11/06/2015). 39,000 children under-five in the Far North are severely malnourished (UNICEF, 23/04/2015). There have been 6,320 cases of SAM in districts hosting IDPs since January (UNICEF, 15/05/2015). The prevalence of SAM in the Far North is 2.0%, while global acute malnutrition (GAM) is 9% (UNHCR, 29/03/2015). There were 40% more cases of severe malnutrition in January 2015 compared to the start of 2014 (OCHA, 30/01/2015).
IDPs face a high risk of water-related disease due to lack of adequate water and sanitation facilities in affected areas. In Minawao, refugees have 14L/person/day, 2 more litres than the prior month (UNHCR, 30/06/2015). In East and Adamawa regions, only two out of seven refugee sites have the standard of 20L/person/day (UNHCR, 17/04/2015).
Almost 30,000 children internally displaced by BH are deprived of education (AFP, 12/05/2015). 519 schools are open in the Far North, down from 737 before the conflict (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015).
Primary school attendance in camps has increased from 44% to 63%. Secondary school attendance has dropped from 67% to 55%, despite advocacy with parents (UNHCR, 09/06/2015).
In Minawao camp, there are only three primary schools – 21 classrooms – to accommodate more than 6,600 primary school-aged children (IRIN, 12/05/2015). Only 50% of the primary school-aged children are enrolled in school. There are not enough classrooms nor teachers (UNHCR, 30/06/2015). The majority of people residing in Minawao camp have no formal education or profession (UNHCR, 21/03/2015).
The main protection issues among assessed IDPs are family separation, lack or loss of personal identity documentation, early marriage, and harassment or discrimination (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015). 27 cases of sexual violence have been reported in Minawao camp (UNHCR, 15/04/2015).
Approximately 1,500 children have been abducted by Boko Haram in Cameroon since late 2014 (AFP, 04/06/2015). 84 children were illegally detained for six months in the Far North region, after authorities raided Koranic schools under allegations that they were training to join Boko Haram. They were released on 2 July (Amnesty International, 21/06/2015; 01/07/2015).
Chad Country Analysis
28 July: The Chadian army pushed Boko Haram back from the country’s islands in Lake Chad after a surge in attacks (Vice News).
- Between 1 and 15 July, 122 new cases of measles, including 2 deaths have been registered in Abeche, eastern Chad (OCHA, 28/07/2015).
- 3 million affected by humanitarian crisis (OCHA, 16/06/2015)
- At least 525,000 refugees in Chad, including 91,210 from CAR and 46,000 from Nigeria (OCHA, 26/06/2015; UNHCR, 25/06/2015).
- 2.4 million Chadians are food insecure. 428,000 are severely food insecure (OCHA, 16/06/2015).
- 154,400 children suffer from severely acute malnutrition (UNICEF).
Nigeria and Central African Republic’s conflicts have affected stability in Chad: hundreds of thousands of refugees have entered the country, and the Government has become military involved.
Chad’s oil revenues have helped finance its defence forces and the country also hosts 3,000 French troops engaged in the contrasts of armed groups in the Sahel (Reuters, 11/07/2015). Ndjamena serves as headquarters for a regional anti-Boko Haram force (Reuters, 11/07/2015).
Regional Military Involvement
The Chadian Government is supporting the fight against Boko Haram (Daily Mail, 14/01/2015). The Chadian army pushed Boko Haram back from the country’s islands in Lake Chadin July, after a surge in attacks (Vice News, 28/07/2015). The Chadian Government began military action against Boko Haram in the Lake Chad area in May. As of 29 May, 33 Boko Haram fighters and three Chadian troops had died (UNHCR, 11/05/2015). The military bombed BH positions in Nigeria in June, following suicide attacks on the Chadian capital, Ndjamena (AFP, 18/06/2015).
In late January, Chadian forces aided Nigerian security forces to reclaim several towns from Boko Haram in Borno state (AP, 03/02/2015; VoA, 01/02/2015). In February, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Chad and Benin agreed to send a joint force of 8,700 troops to fight Boko Haram (10/02/2015). This five-nation force is expected to deploy by July 30 (AFP, 22/07/2015). In In March, Chad and Niger launched a joint army operation against Boko Haram in Nigeria (Reuters, 08/03/2015).
International Presence in Chad
In August 2014, France deployed 1,200 troops to Chad to take part in a counterterrorism operation across the Sahel region (international media).
Boko Haram Attacks in Chad
Boko Haram launched its first cross-border attack in Chad in February. Since then, BH has carried out 14 attacks on civilians and soldiers in the Lake Chad region (ACLED, 07/2015). On 15 June, 23 civilians were killed and 101 were injured during two suicide bomb attacks on police stations in Ndjamena (AFP, 15/06/2015). The border with Cameroon was immediately closed. On 17 June Chadian police launched an offensive. On 28 June, 60 suspects were arrested and a cell was dismantled in Ndjamena. At least 11 people were killed on 29 June in a raid targeting BH militants in Ndjamena (ICG, 01/07/2015). Security measures have been reinforced: 395 people of 14 nationalities have been arrested (UNHCR, 14/07/2015). 300 Cameroonians were expelled 26–27 June.
On 11 July, a suicide bomber detonated in Ndjamena, killing 16 (including the bomber) and injuring 80 (Reuters, 11/07/2015). On 13 July, BH attacked Tetewa Island on Lake Chad (ACLED, 13/07/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Three million people need humanitarian assistance due food insecurity and malnutrition, forced displacement, health emergencies and natural disasters (OCHA, 16/06/2015).
Chad’s President Idriss Déby announced in May 2014 that the southern border with CAR would be closed to all except Chadian citizens until the CAR crisis is resolved. The Government deployed additional security forces to the border, after expressing concern that armed fighters might be infiltrating refugee populations in the area.
Two main roads in Chad, which run through Cameroon and Nigeria and are vital to Chad’s economy, remain insecure and mostly blocked due to violence (AFP, 02/03/2015).
Along the border with Nigeria, Chadian security forces are screening road users and their property. Navigation on the Chari River and its tributary, the Logone, which flow along the border of Chad and Cameroon, has been halted (AFP, 30/04/2015). The humanitarian community continues to have limited access to the population in the Lac Region due to insecurity and ongoing military operations (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
Recurrent natural disasters affect a Chadian population, causing food insecurity and negatively impacting livelihoods. 772,000 people are affected by drought that was declared in January 2014 and 206,000 are affected by floods in eastern Chad occurring in 2013 and 2014 (OCHA, 26/06/2016). Between 5 and 50% of the normal average rainfall has affected southern Chad, leading to low soil moisture and consequent poor conditions for vegetation (NOAA, 23/07/2015).
Displacement is fuelled by the Boko Haram conflict in the western part of the country and the CAR conflict in the eastern part of the country. Heightened security in both areas also cause local populations to be internally displaced. There are 850,500 people displaced in Chad, including Chad returnees.
At end May, an estimated 43,000 people were displaced in Chad due to the violence fuelled by the Boko Haram insurgency (19,000 Nigerian refugees, 13,000 IDPs, and 11,000 Chadian returnees) (UNICEF, 30/05/2015).
After increased insecurity in Niger in May, an influx of refugees, IDPs and returnees has been reported at several camps in Chad (UNHCR, 22/05/2015).
Nearly 85,500 IDPs are living in protracted displacement in the east, facing difficulties accessing shelter, land, and income-generating activities (IDMC, 02/2015; OCHA, 19/11/2013).
14,170 IDPs are in Lac region, in the west (UNICEF, 30/06/2015; UNHCR, 31/05/2015). Cross-border attacks from Nigeria and the fear of Boko Haram displaced another 7,000 Chadians from late May to 28 July (USAID, 17/06/2015; OCHA, 28/07/2015). At Bagasola and Bol IDP camps, there are 3,398 and 1,494 IDPs, respectively (UNHCR, 22/05/2015; 30/04/2015).
32,628 former IDPs with family links were able to return their village of origin (ECHO 27/07/2015).
As of 26 June, the refugee population was 525,000: 370,000 from Sudan, 91,200 from CAR, 46,000 from Nigeria, and 36,500 from DRC (UNHCR, 25/06/2015; 31/05/2015; UNICEF, 30/05/2015; OCHA, 26/06/2015).
Most refugees are in Wadi Fira (157,500), Ouaddai (114,350), Sila (84,650), and Logone Oriental (47,500). 22,750 are in Dosseye camp and 26,420 in Belom camp, Moyen Chari; 14,170 are in the Lac region, with 7,000 in Dar es Salam camp (UNHCR, 14/04/2015; OCHA, 20/03/2015; WFP, 06/03/2015; UNICEF, 08/04/2015; 30/06/2015).
As of July 2015, there are 91,211 refugees from CAR in Chad (OCHA 27/07/2015). 84,030 live in sites in Amboko, Belom, Dosseye, Doholo, Gondje and Moyo (UNHCR, 01/05/2015; 15/05/2015). 6,690 live in host communities (UNHCR, 03/04/2015).
19,000 Nigerian refugees have entered Chad since 3 January (UNHCR, 31/05/2015; 31/02/2015). Estimates indicate that by December 2015 the number could increase to 30,000 (UNHCR, 22/07/2015). As of 29 May, Nigerian refugees are continuing to arrive (WFP, 29/05/2015). On 14 July, 7,140 Niger and Nigerian refugees were registered in Dar es Salam site: relocating refugees from Lake Chad islands to the Dar es Salam site remains a priority (UNHCR, 14/7/2015; UNICEF, 08/04/2015; UNHCR, 30/04/2015).
Resources are limited for both refugees and host communities, especially food, shelter, and essential household items (OCHA, 12/01/2015). At end March, at least 68,000 people in host communities in five prefectures had been affected by the influx of refugees (OCHA, 19/01/2015; UNICEF, 08/04/2015).
There are 230,000 Chadian returnees (OCHA, 26/06/2015). Additionally, there are between 5,000 and 15,000 unregistered returnees (ECHO 27/07/2015).
130,000 have come from CAR (UNHCR, 21/03/2015; UNICEF, 30/06/2015). As of 11 May, there were 1,910 in Djako site; 11,446 in Danamadja site; 6,449 in Kobiteye; 8,418 in Logone Oriental villages; 8,513 in Mandoul villages; 16,879 in Sido (now closed); and 16,074 in Maingama (IOM, 11/05/2015; OCHA, 28/03/2015). Pressure on resources is high. The Sido returnee site was vacated by the deadline set and the transfer of returnees to Maingama site is complete. 1,330 people chose to settle in an area to the west of the original site and lack adequate shelter and sanitation facilities (UNICEF, 30/06/2015).
1,210 CAR returnees identified in Larmanaye are awaiting transfer to Kobiteye (UNICEF, 30/06/2015).
There are 100,000 returnees from Libya (OCHA, 28/02/2015). 8,500 returnees from Nigeria are in Lac region; 2,010 have been registered (IOM, 21/04/2015; OCHA, 21/02/2015).
2.4 million people in Chad are food insecure (OCHA, 16/06/2015). The number of severely food insecure people has increased from 339,000 to 428,000 in six months (UNICEF, 15/05/2015; OCHA, 16/06/2015). Food assistance needs through January 2016 will be higher than last year and the five-year average (FEWSNET, 22/07/2015).
Rains are 2–3 weeks late in the southern part of the country. Due to a depletion of household stocks, low revenues from agriculture and sale of livestock, and increase in grain prices, poor households of South Guera, part of Wadi Fira, Lac, Kanem, Bahr El Ghazal and Hadjer Lamis are in Stressed (IPC Phase 2) food security outcomes, thanks to humanitarian assistance (FEWSNET, 29/06/2015).
Sudanese refugees in eastern Chad report that food prices have risen and food rations decreased. INGOs and the UN have adopted a policy to make these refugees less dependent on food aid (local media, 10/06/2015). The price of food has increased by 30% compared to the five-year average. The closure of the Nigerian border has also led to a decrease in cattle prices (UNICEF, 30/06/2015).
Livelihoods have been further affected by decreased inflows of remittances from family members in Libya due to conflict (IFRC, 30/05/2015).
Regional Outlook: Sahel
In the Sahel and West Africa about 7.5 million people, including 4.5 million in the Sahel, will be in food and nutrition crisis between June and August (Cadre Harmonisé, 06/2015). In 2014, food insecurity rose dramatically, affecting 24.7 million people, compared to 11.3 million people in 2013 (OCHA, 03/02/2015). The phenomenon of El Niño is expected to last until the end of 2015, reducing the amount of anticipated precipitation (FAO, 30/06/2015).
Health and Nutrition
2.5 million people are in need of healthcare (OCHA, 31/08/2014). Due to the influx of refugees, there is a need to strengthen healthcare activities in host communities and to recruit more qualified medical personnel (UNHCR, 06/03/2015).
Malaria is the leading cause of infant mortality. More than 660,000 people had malaria in 2014 and the number is expected to surpass one million in 2015 (UNHCR, 28/02/2015).
Only 34% of children under one have been vaccinated in returnee sites in eastern Chad (UNICEF, 10/11/2014).
HIV/AIDS prevalence in Lac region is 10.1%, compared to the national rate of 2.7% (UNHCR, 14/04/2015).
Between 1 and 15 July, 122 new cases of measles, including two deaths, have been registered in Abeche, eastern Chad, representing a sharp increase in the prevalence of the disease, compared to the 189 cases and three deaths reported in June (OCHA, 28/07/2015). The outbreak is related to the return of miners from Sudan, where there is a measles epidemic (OCHA, 08/07/2015).
154,400 children suffer from SAM while 257,000 suffer from MAM, a slight fall from the numbers reported in October 2014 (UNICEF, 30/06/2015; 30/05/2015; OCHA, 10/02/2015).
1.3 million people are in need of WASH assistance: 55% of the population has access to safe water, compared to 46% in 2012 (UNHCR, 03/03/2015; OCHA, 31/12/2014). Additionally only 4% of households and 50% of health centres have access to standard sanitation facilities (OCHA, 31/12/2014). There has been only a 9% increase in access to sanitation since 1990, with little or no improvement in the last year (UNICEF, 2015)
An assessment of child refugees from Nigeria showed that 72% of the 296 school-aged children identified had never been to school (OCHA, 21/02/2015; 20/03/2015). The number of students in Dar es Salam camp, hosting Nigerian refuges, has decreased from 848 to 269, due to insufficient food rations, heat, and distance (UNHCR, 14/04/2015).
One in five women is a victim of physical violence. 35% of girls in Chad are married before the age of 15 and 44% undergo female genital mutilation (OCHA, 26/06/2015). On 30 June, the National Assembly of Chad ratified the law, prohibiting child-marriages (marrying before the age of 18) (UNHCR, 14/07/2015).
Second and third-generation Chadians from CAR have been recognised as de facto nationals by the Government, and UNHCR is working with authorities to formalise recognition and avoid statelessness. The Government will provide birth certificates to every child born in a transit site (UNHCR, 07/2014).
28 July: FARC-EP stated that the unilateral ceasefire could be at risk if the military closes in on FARC-EP bases in Cauca and Nariño departments (El Espectador).
26 July: Colombia’s President ordered a halt to air raids against FARC-EP camps as a measure to de-escalate violence (Reuters).
- 4.8 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 10/05/2015).
- 6.3 million IDPs, including 224,300 newly displaced in 2014 (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
- 1.3 million people are affected by confinement and access constraints (OCHA, 01/05/2015).
- Approximately 1.3 million people are affected by natural disasters (floods, heat wave, droughts) every year (OCHA, 24/02/2015).
Five decades of armed violence coupled with the country’s frequent natural disasters have had serious humanitarian consequences. Forced displacement and landmine contamination are among the major concerns. For rural communities, movement restrictions by armed groups limit access to basic health services, crops and labour markets, especially in the country’s Pacific region.
Colombia’s armed conflict has spanned five decades, pitting the central government against armed groups such as the Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (FARC-EP) and the National Liberation Army (ELN). Attempts at peace negotiations in the 1980s and 1998–2000 failed. The latest FARC-EP–Government peace negotiations began in November 2012 in Havana, Cuba. Agreements have been reached on agrarian reform, political participation, and illicit drugs. Negotiations are now focusing on how to end the armed conflict (World Bulletin, 20/01/2014; AFP, 02/02/2015). Parties continued dialogues despite an end to a ceasefire on 22 May, with the FARC-EP announcing it would be ready to stop the cultivation and production of illicit products prior to the end of talks (El Espectador, 05/07/2015).
The intensity of the armed conflict has decreased substantially since peace negotiations began in 2012. Nonetheless, violence and insecurity persist, including kidnappings and extortion by armed groups.
The FARC-EP agreed to a new unilateral ceasefire, which began on 20 July. It extended the duration from one to four months (Colombia Reports, 20/07/2015; 13/07/2015). FARC-EP announced a first unilateral ceasefire on 20 December 2014 (Washington Office on Latin America, 2014). The ceasefire was formally lifted on 22 May: it had been broken earlier in the month. Government attacks had continued (Reuters, 19/03/2015; local media, 15/04/2015; AFP, 22/05/2015).
FARC-EP: The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (FARC-EP) is the oldest left-wing militant group in Colombia. It was formed in 1964 by the Colombian Communist Party, as fighting between the liberal and conservative parties led to rural unrest. Approximately 7,000 fighters make up the FARC-EP today, which allegedly makes USD 500–600 million profit from the illicit drug trade (UNRIC 2013; BBC 29/08/2013). FARC-EP has been active throughout the country, but especially in Arauca, Meta, Norte de Santander, Cauca, and Antioquia.
ELN: The National Liberation Army is a left-wing militant group formed in 1965 and composed of 2,000 fighters. On 7 January, it stated that it intended to join the peace talks and would consider disarmament (AFP, 07/01/2015; BBC, 07/01/2015). The ELN has been active in Arauca, Norte de Santander, Nariño and Cauca Departments (Kienyke, 2013).
Government forces: The Government of Colombia’s strategies to combat non-state armed groups have been closely linked to eliminating the cultivation of illicit crops in the country, which finance the armed groups.
BACRIM and post-demobilised armed groups: Criminal gangs (bandas criminales) under the names Black Eagles, and Erpac, among others, are generally made up of former paramilitary fighters and another former armed group, the United Armed Forces of Colombia (AUC). They are involved in drug trafficking and extortion throughout the country and in Venezuela and Panama. These groups are particularly active in Antioquia department, as well as the Pacific and Caribbean regions (BBC 29/08/2013).
During the fourth quarter of 2014, Antioquia, Cauca, Arauca, Meta, and Norte de Santander departments were the most affected by armed activity (OCHA, 07/01/2015). Following alleged FARC-EP attacks against the military on 15 April, the government lifted the suspension on the bombing campaign against the FARC-EP. In the five months of the FARC-EP’s unilateral ceasefire, which ended on 22 May, armed actions fell by 43% and attacks against civilians by 70% compared to the period immediately beforehand (OCHA, 23/06/2015). Since the lifting of the ceasefire, attacks on security forces immediately increased: 31 armed actions and 11 attacks on illicit targets of war, such as civilians or civilian areas, were recorded in 10 days following suspension of the ceasefire (OCHA, 23/06/2015; BBC, 17/06/2015). FARC-EP began a unilateral ceasefire on 20 July; on 25 July, the President ordered a halt to air raids against them (Reuters, 26/07/2015). FARC-EP warned that its ceasefire could be under threat if the military continues to close in on FARC-EP bases in Cauca and Nariño departments (El Espectador, 28/07/2015).
525 violent incidents were recorded in Colombia in May and June, 75% occurred in southwestern departments (MSF, 08/07/2015).
Five attacks by FARC-EP in Argelia, Cauca department, from 12-14 July have affected 226 people (OCHA, 14/07/2015).
12 attacks by FARC-EP and the ELN from 11 June to 2 July resulted in 9 deaths and eight injured; two attacks were in Bogota (Colombia Reports, 02/07/2015; AFP, 02/07/2015; 11/06/2015).
ELN placed UXO where a helicopter landed on 22 June, killing eight troops (AFP, 27/06/2015). On 14 June, an ELN commander was killed in Antioquia (BBC, 14/06/2015). Throughout June and early July, the FARC-EP carried out several attacks against oil pipelines, affecting Putumayo, Narino and Norte de Santander (BBC, 17/06/2015; international media, 08/06/2015; OCHA, 09/06/2015; Government, 03/06/2015).
FARC-EP blew up a water plant in Algeciras municipality in Huila department on 6 June, disrupting service to some 13,000 people. The attack followed three others on electrical plants, which led to major power outages in Nariño, Cauca, and Antioquia (AFP, 06/06/2015, Government, 03/06/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
4.8 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in Colombia, including 1.3 million affected by natural disasters, 1.3 million people in areas with access constraints, 900,000 IDPs, and 1.1 million people in host communities (OCHA, 01/05/2015).
Floods and landslides in Arauca and Boyaca departments have blocked roads and damaged infrastructure (OCHA, 15/06/2015).
As of May, OCHA reports 1.3 million people are affected by confinement and access constraints (OCHA, 01/05/2015). In May alone, 633,214 people were affected by access and mobility constraints (OCHA, 23/06/2015).
160 people in Argelia, Cauca department, are affected by movement constraints due to recent attacks by armed groups on infrastructure and security (OCHA, 14/07/2015).
A post-demobilised armed group is setting curfews and movement restrictions in Achi and Tiquisio municipalities in south Bolivar department. 32,000 people are affected (OCHA, 03/07/2015).
In May, 45,235 people were affected by natural disasters (OCHA, 23/06/2015).
101 municipalities in Antioquia department have been put on orange and red alert due to risk of forest fires (El Tiempo, 06/07/2015).
The overflow of the San Miguel River in Putumayo department on 22 July affected approximately 8,000 people in 22 communes (OCHA, 25/07/2015). 5,500 people in Arauca, Boyaca, and Norte de Santander are most affected by rains (OCHA, 02/07/2015). The rainy season affected 41,000 people in 21 departments in May (OCHA, 23/06/2015). 43 roadways and 62 water pumps are affected (OCHA, 02/07/2015). 2,400 people in Cacota, Labateca, Toledo, and Chitaga municipalities in Norte de Santander are affected by avalanches caused by rain. Movement is restricted (El Espectador, 30/06/2015).
Since lifting its unilateral ceasefire on 22 May, FARC-EP has carried out 14 attacks on the oil industry in Putumayo. Three resulted in spills that contaminated waterways, livelihoods, and the overall environment, leading to a health emergency on 12 June (OCHA, 07/07/2015).
An attack on an oil pipeline on 21 June caused 1.55 million litres of oil to spill into the Mira River, which feeds into the Tumaco water supply in Nariño department. 9,760 people are directly affected and a health and environmental emergency was declared. An estimated 160,000 people were left with limited access to safe water (OCHA, 27/06/2015; 01/07/2015). Water service resumed on 9 July but it is not reaching all communities. In rural areas along the Mira River, 24,960 people are affected (OCHA, 10/07/2015).
Colombia has 6.3 million IDPs (UNHCR, 30/06/2015; IOM, 29/05/2015). 224,300 of these were displaced in 2014; 79,989 were under 18 years of age. 39% of the IDP caseload between 2012 and June 2014 was concentrated in the Pacific region (OCHA, 01/05/2015; OCHA, 20/01/2015).
In May, 943 people were displaced by mass events (OCHA, 23/06/2015). OCHA reports that the ELN, post-demobilised armed groups, and other unidentified armed groups are mainly responsible for displacement (OCHA, 18/04/2015).
Antioquia: 380 Embera and Eyabida were displaced in Uraro due to fear of FARC-EP and military clashes. Another 1,600 are at risk of displacement (OCHA, 10/07/2015).
Cauca: Five attacks since 12 July have displaced 66 people and restricted the movement of 160 in Argelia (OCHA, 14/07/2015). 521 Afro-Colombian families in Guapi have restricted movements and daily activities due to fear of military operations against FARC-EP. 400 remain in shelters or with friends and family since 22 May (OCHA, 05/06/2015).
Nariño: 233 people in La Esperanza, a rural zone in Cumbitara, were displaced due to armed attacks by FARC-EP on 18 June. The population intends to return if explosives are cleared from the territory (OCHA, 23/06/2015).
Norte de Santander: In Tibu, 317 people were displaced over 17–23 July due to clashes between the army and unidentified armed groups (OCHA, 24/07/2015).
Valle del Cauca: Over 10-17 June, 142 Wounaan were displaced from Papayo-Litoral de San Juan to Buenaventura. 515 of the indigenous group have been displaced in Buenaventura since 2014. They live in inadequate housing, lack NFIs, and have limited access to food (OCHA, 21/07/2015).
Colombian Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
360,000 Colombians have sought refuge in neighbouring countries (Colombia Reports, 22/06/2015). Costa Rica: 16,620 refugees and 210 asylum seekers; Panama: 15,550 refuges and 800 asylum seekers; Venezuela: 5,000 refugees, 168,500 unregistered refugees and 250 asylum seekers; and Ecuador 121,320 refugees and 11,580 asylum seekers. 800–900 Colombians arrive in Ecuador each month (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
Most refugees come from the most affected departments of Norte de Santander, Chocó, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, and Nariño (UNHCR, 30/06/2015).
1.2 million people are food insecure, due to in part to low food production, poverty, and internal displacement (OCHA, 20/01/2015). 557,000 require food assistance. Indigenous communities in Nariño are among the most affected (OCHA, 20/01/2015).
Health and Nutrition
Only 30% of the population living in areas affected by armed conflict have access to healthcare (OCHA, 20/01/2015).
The oil spill in Tumaco, Nariño department, on 22 June has affected the health of the population. Many are reporting diarrhoea, and respiratory and skin illnesses. There is a lack of medication and health professionals (OCHA, 01/07/2015).
1.1 million people are in need of WASH (OCHA, 20/01/2015). Only 35.5% of the population consumes safe drinking water, with only 15% of rural areas consuming treated water (OCHA, 20/01/2015).
Attacks on the oil industry in Putumayo department in 2014 are still affecting nearby communities, who have little access to water. Some oil companies are providing families with 20–40L of water per week, which is below standards (OCHA, 23/04/2015).
Shelter and NFIs
916,000 people need shelter (OCHA, 20/01/2015). Many of those displaced by armed conflict come from rural areas and have difficulty re-obtaining rights to their homes when they return. A legal process is in place in the departments of Atlantico and Magdalena in northern Colombia, though some claimants have received threats from paramilitary groups (Amnesty, 23/01/2015).
370 students have not been able to attend school due to mobility restrictions in Teorama, Norte de Santander (OCHA, 18/07/2015).
Detention and Torture
Torture and ill-treatment in various forms are reportedly common in Colombia, and measures for protection and compensation are either very limited or ineffective. As of June, 72,544 people are missing. 4,288 of the 100,316 people listed as missing in December 2014 have been killed (Red Cross, 04/06/2015).
Afro-Colombians and indigenous peoples are highly vulnerable groups, as they are minorities and generally live in areas more likely to be cut off by conflict (NRC, 09/2014).
In 2014, there were 626 registered attacks against human rights defenders, a 147% increase compared to 2013. 73% of attacks were carried out by post-demobilised armed groups. Many local NGOs are concerned that successful peace negotiations may not result in a decrease in such attacks (OCHA, 28/02/2015).
Since November 2012, FARC has killed 700 civil servants and 148 civilians, kidnapped 70 civilians and 10 civil servants, and injured 1,651 civil servants and 148 civilians (local media, 02/06/2015).
Mines and ERW
Over November 2012–March 2015, the duration of the peace negotiations, there were 789 victims of anti-personnel mines and unexploded ordnance, an average of 27 people per month (OCHA, 17/05/2015). In March, the Colombian Government and FARC-EP agreed to remove landmines and explosives, aiming to complete demining by 2025 (Reuters, 09/03/2015). The pilot demining project between the Colombian army and FARC-EP began in late May in El Orejón, Briñedo, Antioquia, a commune of 100 people. An estimated 3,000 mines are in its vicinity (Colombia Reports, 21/07/2015).
There have been frequent reports of landmine explosions involving both civilians and security personnel in Cauca and Caqueta (BBC, 17/06/2015; Government, 03/06/2015).
There are approximately 2,000 underage fighters in FARC (Reuters, 15/04/2015). Reports show that since peace negotiations began in 2012, 76% of children fighting with FARC-EP and 18% with ELN have been reintegrated into society (UNICEF, 2014).
Sexual and Gender-based Violence
52% of displaced women have suffered some type of sexual violence after displacement, according to a study by OHCHR. Women in the Pacific region are particularly affected (NRC, 09/2014).
Democratic People's Republic of Korea Country Analysis
No new significant development this week, 28/07/2015. Last update: 21/07/2015.
- Information on the food security situation remains limited. An estimated 18 million people (70% of the population) are dependent on government rations. 1.8 million people are in particular need of food assistance (UN, 01/04/2015).
- DPRK is disaster-prone, regularly experiencing intense rain, floods and droughts.
- Humanitarian access remains extremely limited (UN, 01/04/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Humanitarian access remains extremely limited. Humanitarian agencies do not have the ability to freely access communities, conduct assessments, or run monitoring and evaluating processes. International sanctions are further complicating assistance, in particular due to the suspension of banking channels for fund transfers (UN, 01/04/2015).
A prolonged dry spell during the planting season, which lasted from April to early June, has adversely affected crops and the yield potential of 2015 food crops (FAO, 17/06/2015). So far in 2015, all provinces have experienced less rainfall than the yearly average (OCHA, 01/07/2015). The provinces of North and South Hwanghae, which contribute to the largest share of the national cereal output, have been most affected (FAO, 17/06/2015). According to South Korean officials, June rainfall has alleviated the drought in other areas (AFP, 10/07/2015).
1.8 million children, older people, and pregnant and lactating women are in particular need of food assistance (UN, 01/04/2015). An estimated 18 million people, of a total population of 24.6 million, are dependent on government rations and highly vulnerable to shortages in food production (UN, 01/04/2015). These food rations were reportedly reduced from 410g per person per day in June to 310g in early July. In mid-July the rations were reportedly further reduced to 250g. Though reductions are normal, this year’s reductions have come a month earlier than in previous years (OCHA, 20/07/2015).
Most households are estimated to have borderline and poor food consumption rates (FAO, 01/06/2015). Decreased production of vegetables and soybeans, a major source of protein, contributes to a lack of food diversity for the general population (UN, 01/04/2015).
The food system in DPRK remains highly vulnerable to shocks and serious shortages exist, particularly in the production of protein-rich crops. Lack of agricultural inputs, such as seeds, fertiliser and plastic sheets, is a fundamental challenge for food production (UN, 01/04/2015).
Potato, wheat, and barley crops could be reduced by up to 40–50% in drought-affected areas, compared with normal levels. Rice planting has been significantly affected by reduced rainfall in 2014, and output is forecast to be 12% lower than last year. Maize output is expected to be 15% lower than last year. Soybean production is also expected to be affected (FAO, 13/07/2015).
According to some sources, the new farm management system, which allows smaller groups of farmers to share a plot of land and keep a greater amount of their crops, coupled with a general improvement in food supplies over recent years, may lessen the effect of drought on food insecurity (Reuters, 31/05/2015).
9% of agricultural land has become unarable due to the 2014 drought; in North and South Hwanghae 33% of land is considered unusable for agricultural purposes (OCHA, 01/07/2015).
Health and Nutrition
An estimated six million people need access to essential health services, including vaccines. Other medical products and lifesaving equipment, such as ambulances, remain limited. Health facilities often lack functioning water systems, increasing the risks of hospital infections and the spread of disease (UN, 01/04/2015).
Indicators suggest that health facilities are stretched by an increase of diarrhoea cases, as access to safe water is diminishing during the drought (OCHA, 01/07/2015).
Tuberculosis and malaria are considered major health challenges, with 2, 500 people dying of TB every year (UN, 01/04/2015). A joint field observation mission in June found an increase in waterborne diseases (OCHA, 22/06/2015).
According to FAO, 10.5 million people were undernourished in 2014 (FAO, 27/05/2015).
Food shortages peak during the lean season, between July and September, and households resort to coping mechanisms such as receiving support from families on cooperative farms; reducing meal sizes; gathering wild foods; and diluting meals with water (OCHA, 01/07/2015).
Chronic and acute malnutrition remains one of the major contributors to maternal and child mortality (UNICEF, 26/01/2015). According to the 2012 National Nutrition Survey, acute malnutrition is at 4% among under-fives (National Nutrition Survey, 03/2013). Micronutrient deficiencies are of particular concern (OCHA, 01/07/2015).
An estimated seven million people need access to clean water and sanitation. There is a notable lack of adequate sanitation in rural areas and in social care institutions and education facilities (UN, 01/04/2015).
The quality and availability of water in domestic water wells – which many communities rely on - has been impacted by the drought. Waterborne diseases are expected to increase (OCHA, 01/07/2015). According to reports, wells are dry and water levels in reservoirs are 20–30% of 2013 levels (NRP, 18/07/2015). Irrigation activities have been disrupted by the April–June dry spell (FAO, 17/06/2015). Rainfall in 2014 was also 40–60% below 2013 levels (Reuters, 30/05/2015).
Lack of teaching/learning materials in addition to the lack of adequate sanitation facilities in school buildings remain a challenge (UNICEF, 26/01/2015).
Forced labour is a major concern. According to Human Rights Watch, DPRK authorities arbitrarily arrest and unfairly prosecute citizens (Human Rights Watch, 08/06/2015).
No new significant developments this week, 30/07/2015. Last update: 07/07/2015.
- An estimated 300,000 people need humanitarian assistance, including more than 24,000 refugees (ECHO, 01/08/2014; OCHA, 30/11/2014).
-Humanitarian organisations fear the influx of people from Yemen may worsen an already difficult humanitarian situation in Obock (ECHO, 20/04/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
As of early July, 20,830 new arrivals from Yemen have been reported since late March. 9,510 are Yemeni nationals, 9,530 are third-country nationals, and 1,790 are Djiboutian returnees (UNHCR, 18/07/2015). 2,250 have been registered as refugees, 2,100 of which are Yemeni nationals. 1,790 of the registered refugees are staying in Markazi camp in Obock (UNHCR, 18/07/2015).
Since 26 March, an average of 1,680 people have arrived from Yemen every week (IOM, 04/06/2015). The UN expects to receive more than 15,000 refugees in the next six months (AFP, 14/05/2015).
IOM estimates that over 100,000 migrants, the majority from Ethiopia and Somalia, transit the country every year. Children account for 32% of the migrant population (UNICEF, 15/01/2015). Migrants arrive in dire conditions and vulnerable to a number of protection issues. Migrants report lack of access to food and water during their transit through Obock (UNHCR, 12/2014).
Prior to the recent influx of people from Yemen, Djibouti was hosting more than 23,700 refugees, the majority of Somali origin (ECHO, 17/04/2015). 70% are women and children who depend entirely on humanitarian assistance and protection services (UNICEF, 15/01/2015). There are also 4,220 asylum seekers in Djibouti, 3,275 of whom are from Ethiopia. The refugees are living in two camps: Holl Holl and Ali Addeh, where there is a reported lack of shelter, sanitation facilities, and essential non-food items (ECHO, 15/04/2015).
An estimated 162,000 people are expected to be facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security outcomes between June and September 2015, primarily in Southeastern and Obock regions; typical of the dry and lean season (Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 20/05/2015; FEWSNET, 30/06/2015). One in 10 people in Djibouti are severely food insecure; 60% of whom live in rural areas (FAO, 22/06/2015). In Obock, almost 60% of the households are food insecure (FAO, 22/06/2015).
The purchasing power of poor households is impaired by limited labour opportunities and poor rainfall from March–May (FEWSNET, 30/05/2015; 30/06/2015). The poor October–February harvest has worsened the food security situation (FEWSNET, 30/06/2015).
Food assistance needs through January 2016 are expected to remain the same as last year and the five-year average, with the majority of the country facing Stressed (IPC Phase 2) food security outcomes (FEWSNET, 22/07/2015).
Health and Nutrition
In 2014, OCHA reported that 300,000 people were in need of health services. Rates of communicable diseases are high, including diarrhoeal disease. A lack of medicine has been reported at health facilities (WHO, 27/04/2015).
In Markazi camp, cases of diarrhoea have increased. Women have also reported not receiving milk or diapers for their children (UNHCR, 10/07/2015).
According to OCHA, 277,700 people were in need of nutritional aid in 2014, compared to 195,400 in 2013. The SAM rate is 6.1% (Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 20/05/2015). In Obock region, GAM has been estimated at 29.9% and severe acute malnutrition at 12.1% (UNICEF, 17/04/2015).
In Obock region, only 40% of the population have access to safe water and only 25% have access to adequate sanitation facilities (UNICEF, 17/04/2015). In Obock, emptying pit latrines is a challenge, as there is no functioning waste management system (UNHCR, 04/07/2015).
The Migration Transit Centre, hosting Yemeni nationals and third country nationals, has closed. Some transferred to Obock while others remained in the city (UNCHRA, 10/07/2015).
Sandstorms in Obock have damaged parts of infrastructure in the region and in Markazi refugee camp (UNHCR, 21/06/2015).
The Government has not authorized the request to relocate Yemeni refugees from Markazi camp to Holl Holl camp (UNHCR, 10/07/2015).
As of January 2015, 41.6% of girls and 33.3% of boys aged 6–10 are out of school (UNICEF, 15/01/2015).
Ethiopia Country Analysis