|Severe humanitarian crisis|
|Situation of concern|
- Severe humanitarian crisis
- Humanitarian crisis
- Situation of concern
- Watch list
Snapshot 24–30 June 2015
Burundi: Turnout at the parliamentary elections was low. Voting stations were targeted and there was a spate of grenade attacks in the capital: several people were injured. Around 1,000 Burundians are leaving the country every day: 62,000 refugees are now in Tanzania, 45,000 in Rwanda, and 10,600 in DRC.
South Sudan: Households in some areas of Unity and Upper Nile states are suspected to be facing Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes. 5–8% of the country’s population are suffering severe acute malnutrition.
Nigeria: 3.5 million people are expected to be in need of food assistance in the northeast between July and September. Eastern Yobe, central and eastern Borno, northern Adamawa and IDP settlements are worst affected. More than 250 people have been killed in violence in the northeast since 29 May, with at least 77 killed between 22 and 29 June. Displacement continues.
Updated: 30/06/2015. Next update 07/07/2015.
Afghanistan Country Analysis
25 June: Insecurity in Chardara district, in southwest Kunduz province, makes it increasingly difficult for civilians to reach Kunduz city to access basic services (MSF).
16 June: 36% of irrigated crops and 5% of rain-fed crops were damaged by late frost in Bamyan province end May, likely to affect food security (Solidarités Internationales).
- Nearly 1,000 civilians killed and 1,990 injured by conflict in the first four months of 2015 (UNAMA, 07/06/2015). 3,699 were killed and 6,849 injured in the whole of 2014 (UNAMA, 18/02/2015).
- 6.9 million in need of humanitarian aid in 2015. Badghis, Helmand, Kunar, Nangarhar, and Wardak most need assistance (UNICEF, 21/01/2015; OCHA, 25/11/2014).
- 205,440 refugees from Pakistan since mid-June 2014; long-term concerns from protracted displacement (UNHCR, 11/06/2015).
- As of end April, there were 873,000 IDPs in Afghanistan, including half displaced in April (UNCHR, 24/05/2015).
- By November 2015, it is estimated that 500,000 to 990,000 people will be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security outcomes or higher (FEWSNET 20/05/2015).
Natural disasters and armed conflicts in Afghanistan have caused humanitarian crisis. Assistance needs include food, healthcare, and protection.
The Afghan Government faces internal and external challenges to its capacity, legitimacy, and stability. The security environment is highly volatile and expected to deteriorate as international troops gradually withdraw from the country.
Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah were sworn in as Afghanistan’s President and Prime Minister, respectively, on 29 September 2014 (Reuters, 29/09/2014). The pair were rival presidential candidates in disputed elections (AFP, 26/09/2014). Elections scheduled for April were postponed because of security fears and disagreements on vote procedure. The current Parliament’s mandate has been extended until a vote can be held (Reuters, 19/06/2015; local media, 01/04/2015).
Peace Talks with the Taliban
Peace talks with the Afghan Taliban stalled in mid-2013. On 2 May, an Afghan delegation held an open discussion in Qatar with the Taliban, offering hope for progress among the population (IWPR, 19/06/2015; AFP, 02/05/2015). Unconfirmed reports stated that renewed talks were held in Oslo mid-June (NRK, 15/06/2015).
In the first four months of 2015, nearly 1,000 civilians were killed and 1,990 injured as a result of conflict; casualties among Afghan police and soldiers rose by 70% compared to the same period last year (UNAMA, 07/06/2015; US Institute of Peace, 01/06/2015). 3,699 civilians were killed and 6,849 injured in all 2014 (UNAMA, 18/02/2015).
Remote parts of southern and southeastern Afghanistan, near the border with Pakistan, remain under Taliban control. Taliban numbers have risen by 15% since the beginning of 2013, and the group has intensified attacks, especially since April this year. An increasing number of Taliban attacks have also recently been reported in the north, in particular in Badakhshan (Al Jazeera, 13/06/2015). The group is increasingly financed by criminal enterprises including heroin laboratories, illegal mining, and kidnapping (UNSC, 02/02/2015).
International Military Presence
NATO formally ended its combat mission in Afghanistan on 31 December 2014, moving to the Resolute Support mission made up of 9,800 US troops and 3,000 soldiers from other member states. The focus of the mission is on supporting Afghan forces’ fight against the Taliban, along with US counter-terrorism operations (Reuters, 01/01/2015).
Conflict Developments and Incidents
Helmand: An explosion in Marka district on 20 June killed 14 people and wounded five (AFP, 20/06/2015). On 13 June, at least 20 Afghan police officers were killed in a Taliban attack in Musa Qala district (AFP, 13/06/2015).
Kabul: At least two people were killed and 31 wounded in a Taliban attack on the Afghan Parliament on 22 June, as President Ghani was to introduce his Defence Minister nominee in Parliament (AFP, 22/06/2015). During May, attacks mainly targeting at police forces and government officials killed at least 45 and injured at least 55 (Al Jazeera, 26/05/2015; AFP, 19/05/2015; 17/05/2015; 14/05/2015; 10/05/2015; Trust.org, 04/05/2015).
Kunduz: Taliban offensives took place simultaneously in five districts on 2 and 3 May (Afghanistan Analyst Network, 3/05/2015). The Taliban, supported by foreign fighters, has come close to the provincial capital, cutting it off (BBC, 07/05/2015).
Other incidents: On 1 June, Taliban militants stormed police headquarters in Jalalabad after a suicide bomb attack at its gate. Nine policemen were wounded (Reuters, 1/06/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Planning figures are for 6.9 million Afghans in need of humanitarian aid in 2015, including 2.8 million children, compared to 7.4 million in 2014 (UNICEF, 21/01/2015). Badghis, Helmand, Kunar, Nangarhar, and Wardak most need assistance (OCHA, 25/11/2014).
Humanitarian access is a key operational concern as conflict continues in many parts of the country. Commercial flights to Kunduz were suspended in May. Conflict in Chardara district in particular makes it increasingly difficult for civilians to reach Kunduz city to access basic services (MSF, 25/06/2015; AFP, 08/05/2015). In April, WFP reported no accessibility to some districts bordering Pakistan, in east Farah, south Ghor and north Helmand as well as to the north of Badghis and south of Jowzjan (WFP, 30/04/2015). Humanitarian actors do have access to Pakistani refugees in Paktika province (UNHCR, 11/06/2015).
Security Incidents Involving Aid Workers
On 2 June, unidentified militants killed nine Afghan NGO employees in Balkh province (Reuters, 02/06/2015). In April, one health staff was seriously injured in Kandahar province (WHO, 18/05/2015). In Paktika province, 19 mine clearance workers were abducted in April and released two days later (local media, 20/04/2015; 21/04/2015). On 10 April, five Afghan members of an NGO were killed in Uruzgan after having been abducted (UN, 11/04/2015).
There were 293 incidents against aid workers in 2014, including 57 killed (UN, 11/04/2015; OCHA, 31/12/2014).
Between 1 April and 15 May, avalanches, flooding, heavy rainfall, and landslides affected 44,823 people. 125 people were killed or injured and 6,062 houses destroyed or damaged. Badakhshan, Baghlan and Faryab were most affected (OCHA, 16/05/2015).
As of end of April, there were 873,136 IDPs in Afghanistan. Overall, nearly 220,000 IDPs are in the south, 216,000 in the west, 145,000 in the east and 121,000 in northern Afghanistan (UNHCR, 24/05/2015).
As of May, fighting in the north has displaced nearly 134,000 people in Kunduz province, including 32,960 in Kunduz city, 14,600 in Jorm, 19,370 in Badghis, 6,280 families in Badakhshan, 5,840 families in Baghlan province, 5,180 in Faryab, and 410 in Fayzabad (OCHA, 25/06/2015; 28/05/2015). By 31 March, 13,840 Afghans had reportedly been displaced by military operations in Helmand in 2015, and needed food, health, and NFIs (UNHCR, 28/02/2015, 31/12/2014, OCHA 19/04/2015).
Badakhstan: 859 IDP families have been assessed and assisted in Badakhshan Province since February.
Food and NFIs are the most urgent need but the security context challenges access. Another challenge is the identification of IDPs, as host communities sometimes claim displacement (UNCHR, 24/05/2015).
Displacement from Pakistan to Afghanistan’s Khost and Paktika provinces has been ongoing since mid-June 2014. As of 8 June, these provinces were hosting around 205,440 refugees from Pakistan, the majority in Khost (including 10,210 families in Gulan camp) (UNHCR, 11/06/2015). There are concerns about the host communities’ ability to support the refugee population, in particular in terms of food, shelter, and education. A recent influx of 700 refugee families has been reported, but not verified (UNHCR, 15/06/2015). Spontaneous returns of refugees to Pakistan have been reported, although the number is unknown (UNHCR, 14/04/2015).
An additional 600,000 Baloch refugees who have fled insurgency activities in Pakistan since 1986 are living in precarious conditions, notably in Nimroz (AAN, 31/12/2014).
Returns of Afghans from Pakistan have increased following security incidents in Pakistan, particularly the December Taliban attack in Peshawar. By 13 May, 60,000 Afghans had returned home voluntarily since early 2015; 6,000 had been expelled (AFP, 13/05/2015; UNHCR, 24/05/2015). Returnees report an increased number of protection issues and cite eviction notices by authorities as the primary factor that influenced their return (UNHCR, 24/05/2015). 30–40% of undocumented returnees are vulnerable and in need of assistance (OCHA, 28/02/2015; IOM, 13/02/2015). 25,000 people returned in 2014 (AFP, 13/05/2015).
Afghan Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
As of September 2014, there were 2.5 million Afghan refugees in neighbouring countries (USAID, 01/10/2014).
As of April, Badghis province is facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security outcomes. Badakhshan, Nuristan, Ghor, Daykundi and Bamyan are Stressed (IPC Phase 2) (FEWSNET, 01/05/2015).
By November 2015, it is estimated that 500,000 to 990,000 people will be in Crisis or worse (FEWSNET, 20/05/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
36% of irrigated crops and 5% of rain-fed crops were damaged by late frost in Bamyan province end May; potatoes and fruit – the main sources of cash for households – were most impacted. This is likely to affected food security (Solidarités Internationales, 16/06/2015).
The 2015 wheat harvest is expected to be worse than last year’s in Ghazni, Bamyan, Daikundy, Kandahar, Hilamand, Zabul, Uruzgan, Paktya, Paktika and Khost, mostly as a result of natural disasters and conflict (FEWSNET/WFP, 07/06/2015).
Refugees in Khost and Paktika have exhausted short-term coping mechanisms and need livelihood opportunities to face long-term displacement (UNHCR, 26/05/2015).
Health and Nutrition
There is a shortage of trained surgeons, anaesthetists, and trauma capacity in conflict-affected areas (OCHA, 25/11/2014). Nearly 80% of maternal and reproductive health needs are unmet (WHO, 10/12/2014). Tuberculosis is a high burden for Afghanistan, but many new cases were missed in 2014 due to lack of close monitoring (Government, 24/03/2015).
29 measles outbreaks were reported in April (WHO, 18/05/2015). In the first quarter of 2015, 445 laboratory-confirmed cases of measles were reported, a significant increase from last year’s total of 581 cases (WHO, 26/04/2015).
Nearly 517,600 children suffer from SAM (UNICEF, 21/01/2015). Helmand and Panjshir show GAM of 6.3% and 9.1%; SAM is 2% in Panjshir, and 0% in Helmand. Treatment for people suffering acute malnutrition is being delayed by insecurity, process changes and pipeline breakages (UNICEF/Government/Nutrition Cluster, 31/03/2015).
An estimated 45% of all child deaths in refugee and IDP camps are linked to malnutrition (UNICEF, 21/01/2015). The presence of common animal diseases in areas of Khost and Paktika has reduced the availability of meat and milk products to Pakistani refugees and host communities (FEWSNET, 11/02/2015).
Three cases of polio have been reported so far in 2015 (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 03/06/2015). 28 cases were reported in 2014, mostly in conflict-affected areas, compared to 14 in 2013 and 37 in 2012 (WHO, 26/04/2015; Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 25/02/2015).
1.9 million Afghans are in need of better access to safe WASH facilities (UNICEF, 21/01/2015).
Refugee influxes have stretched already limited water and hygiene resources and infrastructure in Khost and Paktika; lack of solid waste management and latrines are major challenges, while access to latrines and potable water remains a challenge in Urgun district, Paktika (UNHCR, 15/06/2015; 08/04/2015).
A growing number of IDPs live in informal settlements in major Afghan urban centres, in substandard and crowded accommodation, with insufficient WASH facilities, food, education, and employment opportunities. Women are particularly at risk, with reduced access to education, health, and livelihood opportunities, and facing significant unmet mental health needs (NRC, 23/03/2015). As of December 2014, 40,629 refugees were in 52 informal settlements in the capital (OCHA, 17/12/2014). Numbers on people in informal shelters across Afghanistan are lacking.
Educational facilities in Khost are overstretched, with 344 schools employing 6,000 teachers and teaching around 360,000 children. There are 50,000 school-aged refugee children in Khost (Institute for War and Peace Reporting, 05/11/2014). Language barriers are a challenge for the refugees and will be of increasing concern if displacement persists (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
In provinces most affected by fighting, schools have closed over the fear that students might get caught in crossfire. In northern Baghlan, for example, at least 18 schools were closed in May (Reuters, 31/05/2015).
Afghan local police has reportedly been involved in intimidation, physical abuse or violence, bribe-taking, salary fraud, and theft. Incidents of rape, drug trafficking, drug abuse and the selling or renting of local police weapons and vehicles have also been reported (ICG, 05/06/2015).
The Afghan national and local police and three armed groups (Taliban, Haqqani Network, and Hezb-e-Islami) have been listed for recruitment and use of children (Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict 02/05/2015). Children have also been used as suicide bombers by armed groups (UNSC, 15/05/2015).
Six million of the 16 million minors in Afghanistan face deprivation of basic rights. 31% of children are illegally employed in heavy labour, especially in Helmand, and 43% of girls get married underage (IWPR, 03/06/2015).
Sexual violence is underreported because of the social stigma attached to it and lack of access to Taliban-controlled areas. Between January 2014 and January 2015, UNAMA registered 44 cases (UN Security Council, 15/04/2015).
Mines and ERW
4,306 minefields and battlefields remain in Afghanistan, corresponding to almost 541km2 (MAPA/MACCA, 31/05/2015). There is an average of 38 civilian casualties every month and another 61 civilian casualties from IEDs (MAPA, 18/05/2015).
Central African Republic Country Analysis
No significant developments this week, 29/06/2015. Last update, 22/06/2015.
- More than 5,000 people have died in violence since December 2013 (Government, 16/09/2014; BBC, 07/01/2015).
- 2.7 million of 4.6 million people needed immediate assistance, half of them children (OCHA, 06/06/2015).
- 1.5 million people are in Crisis and Emergency phases of food insecurity (USAID, 13/03/2015).
- 27% of the health facilities in the country are damaged and 40% are unable to offer health services (WHO, 31/01/2015).
- 399,270 IDPs, including 33,070 in Bangui (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
- 461,400 CAR refugees in neighbouring countries, 219,720 of whom have arrived since December 2013 (UNHCR 06/03/2015; 17/04/2015).
- 94,545 returnees in Nana-Gribizi, Ouham, Kemo and Ouham Pende.
Health, protection, food, and WASH are top priority needs, as continued violence, looting, and displacement cause further deterioration of an already dire humanitarian situation across the country. Violence between Muslim communities, perceived to have links with the ex-Seleka, and Christian communities, aligned with the anti-balaka militias, has resulted in displacement, targeted killings along communal lines, and human rights abuses.
Between 4 and 11 May, the Bangui Peace Forum took place. Moderated by President of Congo Denis Sassou Nguesso, 585 participants agreed on a 'Republican Pact for Peace', which sets the calendar for elections and revision of the constitution; a consensual disarmament model; the establishment of a criminal court; and an agenda of humanitarian and development priorities (BBC, 03/05/2015; Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 12/05/2015).
A constitutional referendum will be held on 4 October. The first round of presidential and legislative elections will take place on 18 October, and the second round on 22 November. (APF, 19/06/2015).
Conflict began in late 2012, when Seleka fighters advanced from the north, taking control of territory on their way to the capital Bangui, where they held power until December 2013. Seleka committed numerous abuses during their advance and rule, and self-defence militias composed of mainly non-Muslims, ‘anti-balaka’, began revenge attacks in late 2013. Most ex-Seleka members withdrew to the north at the end of 2013, but fighting persisted between ex-Seleka and anti-balaka, Muslim and Christian communities, and pastoralists and farmers. In April 2015, the ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka agreed to a ceasefire. This was rejected by the transitional Government, just as it rejected an earlier ceasefire agreement (USAID, 10/04/2015).
African Union forces, MISCA, backed by France, were deployed in December 2013, authorised by the UN. The African Union had already deployed troops to CAR prior to Seleka’s assumption of power, but was overwhelmed by the severity and scope of the conflict. In mid-September 2014, the UN peacekeeping force took over operations under the name MINUSCA.
A transitional government was formed in August 2014. It was rejected by the ex-Seleka, which had proclaimed a de facto, independent, secular state in northeastern CAR in July (IRIN 23/09/2014; Government, 24/07/2014).
More than 5,000 people have been killed since December 2013 (BBC, 07/01/2015). More than 1,820 security incidents have been recorded since January 2015 (OCHA, 12/05/2015).
Fighting is concentrated around six central and western prefectures: Mambere-Kadei, Nana-Grebizi, Nana-Mambere, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, and Sangha-Mbaere (OCHA, 18/03/2015).
Priority areas for civilian protection are Ngaoundaye (Ouham-Pende), Markounda (border area) and Batangafo (Ouham), Bambari and Kouango (Ouaka), Boda (Lobaye), Gamboula, (Mambere-Kadei) and Mbres (Nana-Grebizi) (UNHCR, 15/05/2015).
Ex-Seleka: Seleka was an alliance of factions created in 2012 and dissolved by President Djotodia in late 2013. However, many fighters remained active, and were dubbed ‘ex-Seleka’. With the exception of 17,114 confined to three military camps in Bangui, most moved out of the capital and controlled much of central and northern CAR by January 2014 (IRIN, 17/09/2014). Bambari, Ouaka reportedly became the ex-Seleka headquarters in May 2014. Between 10 and 15 commanders oversee 1,500–3,750 soldiers each, including Muslims from the northeast, and Sudanese and Chadians (IRIN, 12/01/2015; international media, 30/09/2014; Enough, 17/06/2015).
Anti-balaka: The anti-balaka were formed in order to counter the Seleka; there are around 75,000 militants, though the numbers are contested, and their main leaders and political programme remain unknown (IRIN, 12/01/2015). After the coup and Djotodia’s resignation, many members of the former government army, the FACA, joined the anti-balaka. It is suspected that up to ten anti-balaka factions function in the vicinity of Bangui (IRIN, 12/02/2014).
LRA: Mbomou and Haut-Mbomou prefectures remain most affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army, which increased attacks as the political crisis left a power vacuum (OCHA, 10/11/2014). In 2015, LRA attacks increased after LRA militant Dominic Ongwen surrendered to US forces in January (BBC, 07/01/2015).
UN peacekeeping mission (MINUSCA): MINUSCA officially took over operations on 14 September 2014, under a one-year mandate. In March 2015, the number of peacekeepers was increased by 1,000, to better protect infrastructure and senior officials in Bangui, bringing the total to 13,000 uniformed personnel (Reuters, 26/03/2015). On 28 April, the UN Security Council extended MINUSCA’s mandate by one year (UN, 28/04/2015).
French forces: On 19 May, the operation was formally handed over to MINUSCA (French Ministry of Defence, 22/05/2015). As of 21 May, 1,700 of 2,000 French troops were left in CAR (UN, 21/05/2015).
EU advisory mission: The EU launched the EU Military Advisory mission (EUMAM RCA) on 19 January, with the objective of reforming the security sector (Government, 16/03/2015).
US military assistance: The US is providing logistical support, special forces, and advisers to African troops operating against the LRA in eastern and southeastern CAR.
Nana-Mambere: Late June, MINUSCA was dismantling an FDPC camp (Front démocratique du peuple centrafricain) in the prefecture. FDPC had been carrying out attacks on a main supply road (UN, 24/06/2015). FDPC was formed around a decade ago. It was part of Seleka in 2012, but has since come into conflict with other Seleka members.
Nana-Grebizi: 4,400 people fled armed attacks in Bissingale, Ndemayo, and Site-Nana for Kaga Bandoro town on 15 May. According to the UN, the attacks resulted in ten deaths (USAID, 12/06/2015). 300–400 people attacked a MINUSCA camp in Kaga Bandoro in early April, because UN peacekeepers failed to stop raids by Fulani pastoralists (UNHCR, 10/04/2015; Reuters, 10/04/2015). MINUSCA has set up a temporary base in Mbres, as clashes between ex-Seleka and anti-balaka along the Kaga Bandoro–Mbres route persist. Mbres is currently under ex-Seleka control (UNHCR, 17/04/2015).
Ouaka: A MINUSCA vehicle was attacked on the route from Bambari to Bangui, after alleged Muslims were arrested. Cars were battered and approximately 17 homes were burned (local media, 11/04/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
As of late April 2015, 2.7 million of 4.6 million people need immediate assistance, half of them children. Humanitarian needs in CAR continue to exceed available resources and delivery of aid is expected to decline because funding remains low (OCHA, 06/06/2015). However, on 13 May, CAR was deactivated as a Level 3 emergency response (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Crime hinders the supply of humanitarian assistance outside Bangui. MINUSCA forces are organising patrols in Damara (Ombella-Mpoko), aiming to curtail crime in the region, including violent attacks, threats against aid workers, and roadblocks (OCHA, 28/05/2015). A rapid assessment on the Niango–Kaga Nze route, in Bamingui-Bangoran province, found that exactions, theft, and abuse were current in the region (Premiere Urgence – Aide Medicale International, 06/05/2015).
As of 15 May, more than 36,000 people are trapped and at risk of violence and abuse in seven enclaves countrywide: in Bangui’s PK5 (24,000), Boda (9,000), Bouar (1,600), Carnot (522), Berberati (456), Yaloke (372), and Dekoa (105). Most belong to religious and ethnic minorities and have limited access to basic services (OCHA, 28/05/2015; USAID, 12/06/2015).
Bangui: In PK5, shopkeepers have complained about extortion by ex-Seleka who ‘secure’ the neighbourhood against anti-balaka (AFP, 28/05/2015). Security incidents in PK5 have resulted in teachers fleeing their posts (OCHA, 04/03/2015).
Security Incidents Affecting Aid Workers
232 acts of violence have been recorded against humanitarian organisations since January 2015 (OCHA, 12/05/2015). They include thefts of humanitarian assets and facilities as well as threats to staff (USAID, 27/04/2015). UN, NGO, and private vehicles are becoming regular targets on main roads (IOM, 02/02/2015). On 22 May, two armed men attempted to rob an international NGO vehicle on the Yaloke–Boali road (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
18 humanitarian workers were killed and six wounded in 142 incidents in 2014 (OCHA, 04/12/2014; USAID, 19/12/2014).
Nana-Mambere: Several NGOs have temporarily suspended operations in the areas along Baboua-Besson and Baboua-Cantonnier roads in western Nana-Mambere due to insecurity. Nana-Mambere is becoming more and more inaccessible. Polio vaccination of over 16,000 children has been delayed in two subprefectures (OCHA, 08/06/2015).
Ouham: On 23 April, a severe storm hit Moyenne Sido, affecting 3,500 people (IOM, 27/04/2015).
Mambere-Kadei: Storms in Berberati since 24 April have affected 1,110 people and destroyed 200 houses (Red Cross Movement, 14/05/2015). The rainy season has caused extensive flooding and severe damage to IDP shelters (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
As of end May, there were 399,270 IDPs in CAR compared to 426,238 at the end of April (OCHA, 23/06/2015). The decrease in IDPs is due to improved security and a consistent presence of MINUSCA. Displacement, however, is still occurring in Ouham and Nana-Grebizi prefectures (OCHA, 21/06/2015). There are approximately 131,000 returnees in CAR, mainly in Ouham-Pende, Ouham, Kemo and Nana-Grebizi (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
Bangui: Relative improvements in security in some neighbourhoods outside Bangui have reduced IDP numbers in Bangui to 33,070 in 33 sites from 36,930 at end May (OCHA, 23/06/2015). Some suggest this drop may be due more to the poor condition of IDP sites (OCHA, 04/03/2015; IOM, 02/03/2015; UNHCR, 03/04/2015).
As of 22 June IOM has deregistered 14,360 people (2,872 households), at Mpoko airport IDP site (IOM, 22/06/2015). The transitional government is closing the site (OCHA, 28/05/2015). A survey of all households previously found that 42% plan to resettle in new areas and 55% want to return to their place of origin (OCHA, 18/02/2015; USAID, 27/03/2015). 1,173 households have been registered in the 5th district of Bangui (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
Mbomou: A rapid assessment of Ndambissoua, Ouago, and Zabe villages in Bakouma sub-prefecture determined that 660 returnees need humanitarian assistance, especially WASH, as none of the villages have access to improved sources of water (ACTED, 11/05/2015).
Nana-Grebizi: After an attack in mid-May, 1,900 IDPs and 2,500 residents fled villages on the Dekoa route to the Evêché IDP site in Kaga Bandoro (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
Ouham: 3,600 IDPs are in Kabo and Moyenne Sido IDP sites; 5,200 are staying with host-families (IOM, 13/04/2015). Thousands of returnees in Markounda and Nana Bakassa needed assistance in April (ACF, 22/04/2015; USAID, 27/04/2015).
Ouaka: Ouaka hosted 57,000 IDPs at 12 March (OCHA, 18/03/2015). In Bambari, there are 9,870 IDPs in Sangaris IDP site; 2,614 IDPs in MINUSCA site; 8,790 at Notre Dame de la Victoire; 9,400 in the Muslim neighbourhood Hadji and Bornu; and 7,900 at Aerodome (UNICEF, 31/03/2015).
Refugees in CAR
8,100 refugees and asylum seekers from DRC, Chad, and Sudan are living in camps in Bangui, Bambari, and Zemio (UNHCR, 26/03/2015; 17/04/2015; OCHA; 29/04/2015).
CAR Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
As of April, there are 461,400 CAR refugees in neighbouring countries, 219,730 of whom have arrived since December 2013 (UNHCR 06/03/2015; 17/04/2015). 247,250 are registered in Cameroon, 94,020 in Chad, 94,130 in DRC, and 26,000 in Congo (UNHCR, 17/04/2015).
The lean season has begun and a food security crisis is expected to last until September 2015, in particular for IDPs and some host communities. 1,268,000 people are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes (Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 20/05/2015; FEWSNET, 30/05/2015).
About 19% of people in rural areas are in Crisis and 12% in Emergency (OCHA, 28/05/2015). The most insecure are households headed by women, displaced people or returnees, and those without financial resources. Most IDPs were categorised as in Crisis in March (OCHA, 04/02/2015; 04/03/2015; FEWSNET, 20/04/2015). Households in the north and northwest need assistance (FEWSNET, 01/04/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
Food access is restrained by reduced food production, lack of livelihoods, and high food prices (OCHA, 18/12/2014; FAO, 26/01/2015). Food crop production in 2014 was 58% below average, as a result of insecurity, looting, and the killing of livestock (OCHA, 04/03/2015). Poor storage of seeds results in insect and fungi attacks, and poor germination (FAO, 19/06/2015). Food stocks in rural areas are 40–50% below average due to recurring raids.
Fish supply has fallen by 40% and cattle-breeding by 77% compared to pre-crisis levels, and insecurity and poor road conditions have disrupted market linkages and led to significant increases in food prices in 2014 (FAO, 26/01/2015; OCHA, 18/12/2014).
Health and Nutrition
As of December 2014, two million people need access to health services (OCHA, 19/11/2014; 22/12/2014). 55% of health facilities are functioning (WHO, 27/04/2015). Only 25% of those offering services have functioning sources of energy, and 21% have access to water (WHO, 31/12/2014). Shortages of drugs and qualified staff have been severe in Dekoa, Mala and Ndjoukou (Kemo) (OCHA, 29/04/2015).
There is a lack of access to health services in IDP sites and in the subprefectures of Mbres, Batangafo, and Kouango due to increased insecurity (OCHA, 29/04/2015). More than 15,000 IDPs from Ngakobo in Ouaka prefecture do not have access to healthcare services (OCHA, 14/04/2015). Deficiency in antiretroviral treatment is reported in Ouaka due to lack of access (OCHA, 28/05/2015). HIV prevalence increased from 12% to 14% between 2014 and 2015.
Malaria remains the primary cause of mortality (WHO, 30/04/2015). Funding shortages have brought an NGO to reduce activities by 60% in Paoua and Markounda subprefectures, Ouham, where almost 150,000 had received free malaria treatment (OCHA, 13/05/2015).
Based on a national survey, the country has 6.5% severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (UNICEF, 08/01/2015). In 2015, 32,348 children will suffer from SAM and 78,355 from MAM (OCHA, 28/05/2015). From January to end March 2015, 6,500 children were admitted for treatment for SAM (UNICEF, 30/04/2015).
In 2014, 28,000 children were severely malnourished and 75,500 moderately malnourished (OCHA, 04/12/2014; 18/12/2014).
2.3 million people do not have access to improved safe water or improved sanitation (OCHA, 23/09/2014; 22/12/2014). 1.4 million people are targeted for WASH assistance in 2015 but lack of funding is a constraint on WASH infrastructure support (OCHA, 29/04/2015; 28/05/2015).
In Bambari, Sangaris IDP site has 6.8L of water/person/day; MINUSCA has 10L/person/day; Notre Dame de la Victoire 4.0L/person/day; and Muslim neighbourhoods have 2.2L/person/day (UNICEF, 31/03/2015).
An assessment of schools noted that as of end April 2015, 78–88% are open (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). The situation varies across the country, with 25% functioning in Nana-Grebizi, 50% functioning in Ouaka, 63% in Sangha-Mbaere; 67% functioning in Vakaga and 71% in Ouham. Classes, however, are not regular due to insecurity and absence of teachers.
Student enrolment has improved by 31% since 2013-2014 but is still 6% below pre-crisis levels (2011-2012) (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). Only 6,000–10,000 children were enrolled in school 2012–2014 (IRIN, 12/01/2015). Over 1.4 million children are in need of education (OCHA, 22/12/2014).
In Bangui’s PK5 district, teachers have left due to insecurity, resulting in 60,000 school-aged children in need of safe learning spaces (USAID, 13/03/2015).
Only 10% of school-aged returnees in Debissaka village, Mbomou prefecture, are attending school due to security threats and attacks (ACTED, 22/04/2015).
Crimes against humanity and war crimes have been reported. Ex-Seleka are listed for child recruitment, killing, rape and other forms of sexual violence, and attacks on schools and/or hospitals. Anti-balaka are listed for child recruitment, and killing and maiming (Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, 04/11/2014).
On 8 January, the UN Commission of Inquiry into human rights concluded that violence towards Muslims by anti-balaka in 2014 constitutes ethnic cleansing (Government, 20/01/2015).
15 months after being captured in Ombella-Mpoko, 11 Fulani, including the local head of anti-Balaka are still missing and no investigation has started (UN, 05/06/2015).
Refugees are at risk of statelessness because access to birth certificates is limited (OCHA, 28/05/2015).
The areas at most risks of sexual violence, early and forced marriage, and with insufficient GBV response are: Bambari, Ouaka; Mbres and Kaga-Bandoro, Nana-Grebizi; Kabo and some villages in Nana Mambere (OCHA, 28/05/2015). 150 rape cases were repored in March and April in Bangui, Begoua (Bangui), Bimbo (Ombella-Mpoko), Yaloke (Ombella-Mpoko), Kaga Bandoro (Nana Grebizi), and Bambari, (Ouaka) with many more not reported (WHO, 30/04/2015).
432 children were killed or maimed by violence in 2014 (OCHA, 04/12/2014).
The number of children recruited into armed groups has risen to 8,000–10,000, from 2,500 at the beginning of the crisis (The Guardian, 18/12/2014; OCHA, 02/04/2015). Eight major militia groups have agreed to free child soldiers and children used as cooks, messengers, or for sexual purposes (Reuters, 5/05/2015). More than 350 children were freed from armed groups on 14 May (AFP, 14/05/2015).
France is in the process of investigating allegations of child abuse by its peacekeeping forces that occurred between December 2013 and June 2014 (Reuters, 29/04/2015). UN peacekeepers from another country have been accused of sexually abusing street children in Bangui; an investigation is underway (Reuters, 23/06/2015).
Democratic Republic of Congo Country Analysis
24 June: MONUSCO and the FARDC have reportedly neutralised the FRPI in Orientale (AFP).
24 June: Two attacks took place against humanitarian organizations in Rutshuru and Walikale territories, North Kivu on 18 and 21 June (OCHA)
4 June: More than 1,600 IDPs arrived in Mambasa, Ituri territory, Orientale province, between end May and the beginning of June, fleeing Mayi-Mayi clashes (OCHA).
23 June: A fire in a hospital in Pweto, Katanga province, destroyed medical supplies, including vaccines against polio and measles (Radio Okapi).
- Internal conflict in the eastern provinces of Orientale, North Kivu, South Kivu, and Katanga.
- 7 million people need humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
- 2.6 million IDPs (OCHA, 01/06/2015; 17/06/2015).
- Over 2 million children under five are suffering from acute malnutrition (Radio Okapi, 04/11/2014).
- 7.3 million school-aged children are not attending school (Radio Okapi, 10/03/2015).
Needs are highest in the conflict-affected regions of North Kivu, South Kivu, Katanga, and Orientale, where there is large-scale, repeated displacement. IDPs, host populations, and those unable to flee areall vulnerable, as insecurity poses multiple protection risks and prevents access to basic services. Needs vary according to geographic area and conflict dynamics.
Political violence and inter-communal strife have persisted for decades, influenced by longstanding tensions with DRC’s eastern neighbours. Operations by DRC armed forces and UN peacekeepers and infighting between armed groups disrupt security and stability.
National Political Context
Attempts to prolong the President’s term beyond the two-term limit were met with violent protests in September and then January. Although Parliament voted against the legislation to prolong the presidential term beyond 2016, there are doubts regarding the scheduling of elections (AFP, 27/09/2014; 25/01/2015). In March and April, activists promoting political participation were arrested (Reuters, 16/04/2015). Parliament rejected a bill setting the terms for the upcoming elections on 25 October. The next assembly will be on 15 September, when they will decide the electoral terms. (AFP, 17/06/2015).
At least 40 armed groups are operating in the east of the country (ECHO, 22/10/2014). They range from local militias set up initially as self-defence groups (among them many Mayi-Mayi groups), to secessionist groups, and forces first set up by fighters from Uganda (LRA and ADF/NALU), Rwanda (FDLR) and Burundi (FNL). The UN has a peacekeeping mission (MONUSCO), and an EU mission providing assistance to security sector reform (EUSEC) was extended until 30 June 2015 (EU, 25/09/2014). The UN and the Government are discussing withdrawal of the UN mission (Radio Okapi, 06/04/2015).
Front of Patriotic Resistance (FRPI) is an armed group established in November 2002 in Ituri from the Ngiti ethnic group (TRAC). Attacks increased in Irumu territory, Orientale, in 2015, after a failed disarmament programme at the end of 2014 (OCHA, 19/04/2015). Around 300 FRPI militants disarmed to the FARDC on 17 May in Bunia, Orientale (Radio Okapi, 19/05/2015). The FRPI was reportedly neutralised by the FARDC and MONUSCO in late June. 35 died, 52 were wounded and 36 captured alive in three weeks of operations (AFP, 24/06/2015).
Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) are mainly Hutu Rwandans who were allegedly linked to the genocide. An estimated 1,400 fighters are active, primarily in the Kivu region (Reuters, 22/03/2015).
Mayi-Mayi: At least 20 Mayi-Mayi groups, formed by local leaders along ethnic lines, are active in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Katanga. The number of fighters can range from 100 to 1,000 (AFP 2013).
Allied Democratic Forces/National Army for the Liberation of Uganda (ADF/NALU) is a Muslim militant group founded in the 1990s. MONUSCO and the FARDC launched an operation in North Kivu to neutralise the group in January 2015 (Radio Okapi, 07/01/2015). ADF activity decreased in January, but by early February attacks against villages in Beni territory had increased (AFP, 04/02/2015; 20/03/2015).
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), founded by Joseph Kony in Uganda in 1987, has spread to South Sudan and subsequently to DRC and CAR (IRIN).
National Liberation Forces (FNL) are Burundian militants based in South Kivu (AFP 2013).
The armed forces of the DRC (FARDC) comprise 120,000–130,000 fighters (Defence Web, 2013). Seven army and police officers were banned from receiving MONUSCO support in March 2015 because they pose a risk of committing human rights violations (Reuters, 11/03/2015).
The UN Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO) is made up of almost 18,000 troops, as well as military observers and police units (OCHA, 19/04/2015). The initial mission, MONUC, was established after the signing of the 1999 peace agreement between DRC and five regional states. In March 2014 its mandate was expanded, with the creation of an Intervention Brigade, charged with neutralising armed groups (RFI, 20/10/2014). MONUSCO’s mandate was extended for another year in March 2015, although its force was cut by 2,000 troops (Reuters, 26/03/2015; AFP, 26/03/2015).
2.29 million people in North Kivu are affected by armed conflict (OCHA, 02/06/2015). A FARDC offensive on the FDLR began in February (AFP, 26/02/2015). More than 300 people have been killed in Beni territory since October 2014 (international media, 09/05/2015).
Beni territory: Activities are back to normal in Beni, after they had slowed in protest against the killing of civilians (Radio Okapi, 03/06/2015). In May, around 80 people were killed, and people left a dozen villages, asked by authorities to move towards FARDC positions and the towns of Oicha and Beni.
Lubero: A clash broke out on 25 May in a transit camp for ex-FDLR combatants in Kanyabayonga. Four people were injured (Radio Okapi, 25/05/2015). The security situation in Banmate, Itala, Bunzoa, Ikobo villages, which lie between Lubero and Walikale territories, is tense due to FDLR attacks (Radio Okapi, 18/05/2015). FDLR have been reported in the communities of Rusamambo, Bukumbirwa, Kasiki, Luhanga and Buleusa, where they accuse youth of collaborating with Mayi-Mayi militants (local media, 07/05/2015).
Masisi: Five people were killed in an attack on Goma airport in the night of 1–2 June, by suspected ADF (international media, 03/06/2015). 30 people have been arrested (international media, 08/06/2015).
Rutshuru: Tribal tensions between Hutus and Nande have halted social and economic activities in Nyamilima. Several families sought refuge in the church (local media, 04/05/2015).
Walikale: Four civilians were killed in clashes between two Mayi-Mayi factions on 2 June in Nsindo. Thousands reportedly fled their homes (Radio Okapi, 04/06/2015).
In Lulingu, Shabunda territory, clashes have been ongoing since mid-May between FARDC and Mayi-Mayi Raiya Mutomboki. Economic activity has ceased, and schools and other basic infrastructure are not functioning. An unknown number of people have left the town, and flights to the region have been suspended (OCHA, 27/05/2015). Incidents have been reported in south Fizi territory since May. 8,000 people fled to north Katanga and east Maniema after Mayi-Mayi attacks (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
FRPI: 35 died, 52 were wounded and 36 captured alive in three weeks of FARDC–MONUSCO operations in June (AFP, 24/06/2015). On 3 June, FRPI clashed with FARDC in Aveba, Irumu territory. The following day FARDC had taken control of the town and calm was restored (Radio Okapi, 05/06/2015).
On 8 June, 30 people were abducted in Dungu-centre, reportedly by LRA. 12 were released after FARDC intervention (local media, 12/06/2015).
Since early 2015, Katanga’s triangle of death (Pweto, Manono and Moba territories) has experienced a decrease in Mayi-Mayi attacks (Radio Okapi, 17/03/2015), but Luba (Bantus) and Pygmies (Batwa) have frequently clashed in Kalemie, Manono, and Nyunzu territories (OCHA, 08/04/2015). In Nyunzu territory, conflict between Luba and pygmies has killed 200 people since January 2015; 60 women have been raped. 113 villages have been burned (Radio Okapi, 03/06/2015). Luba burned several shelters in an IDP camp in May. Women and children are now hosted in a warehouse and require assistance (ECHO, 05/05/2015; OCHA, 06/05/2015).
Four people were killed in clashes in Kitutwa, Manono territory (Radio Okapi, 03/06/2015). On 1 May, pygmy militants burned 28 Luba homes in Kazala locality, Manono territory, and later clashes killed eight and injured 30 (local media, 07/05/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
7 million people need humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
The mountainous and volcanic terrain, and lack of tarred roads, limit access across DRC, and access worsens during the rainy season. Insecurity is a major constraint in the east.
North Kivu: There were two attacks against humanitarian organisations in Rutshuru and Walikale territories between 18 and 21 June (OCHA, 23/06/2015). Organisations had already suspended activities along the Oicha–Eringeti route north of Beni (Radio Okapi, 23/05/2015). Some 275,000 IDPs are hard to access in North Kivu due to insecurity, including 44,000 IDPs in sites in Rutshuru territory (OCHA, 30/04/2015). Commercial flights are not serving the area and roads are inaccessible (local media, 09/06/2015).
South Kivu: 40% of the roads in South Kivu are impassable (OCHA, 29/05/2015). Traffic has been suspended on the Bukavu–Goma road since 7 June, after a bridge over the Kitalima River collapsed. Armed groups are stealing goods from stranded trucks (local media, 09/06/2015). An increasing number of insecurity incidents have been reported on the route between Bitale and Hombo (Kalehe territory) (OCHA, 10/06/2015). Humanitarian and commercial flights to Lulingu, Shabunda territory, have been suspended due to insecurity (OCHA, 31/05/2015). Two NGOs have temporarily suspended activities (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Katanga: 82% of the roads in Katanga are almost impassable (OCHA, 30/04/2015). ACTED suspended its activity in Pweto after 14 April due to threats (OCHA, 29/04/2015). In Malemba-Nkulu territory, humanitarian assistance in restricted due to poor roads, especially during the rainy season (OCHA, 30/04/2015). Insecurity has prevented humanitarian actors from accessing Lulingu region, where people are in dire need of assistance (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Orientale: Humanitarian organisations have slowed their activities in the south of Irumu territory (Bunia, Gety, Aveba and Bukiring) due to insecurity (OCHA, 03/06/2015). Since 16 May, five NGOs have suspended humanitarian activities (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Security Incidents Affecting Aid Workers
From January to end March, 37 incidents against humanitarian actors were recorded (OCHA, 30/04/2015). There were 35 incidents against humanitarians in North Kivu alone over 14–30 April (OCHA, 30/04/2015). Humanitarian agencies are reporting an increase in kidnapping, robbery and extortion cases in Rutshuru and Walikale territories, North Kivu (USAID, 15/04/2015).
On 12–13 June a landslide in Mbuse and Laingba, in Ituri territory, Orientale, caused at least 26 deaths and 10 injuries. 500 homes were damaged, leaving people in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 24/06/2015).
At end April, there were 2.8 million IDPs in DRC, including 121,000 displaced between January and March 2015 (OCHA, 30/04/2015). 80% of IDPs are hosted by families and communities who are already facing chronic food insecurity and limited access to services and livelihood opportunities (FAO, 20/11/2014).
North Kivu hosts 570,260 IDPs at 17 June, a decrease of 327,750 from April 2015 due to a data update (OCHA, 17/06/2015). 50,700 were newly displaced people in May 2015 (OCHA, 17/06/2015). 78% live with host families and 22% in IDP sites, most of which are near Goma. 57 sites in North Kivu remain open, hosting more than 201,600 people, mainly from Rutshuru and Masisi (IOM, UNHCR and others, 25/05/2015). Near Goma, four sites remain open, hosting more than 16,000 IDPs (ECHO, 29/05/2015). Buhimba and Nzulo IDP sites closed in May. Most people relocated to Masisi, Nyirangongo, and Rutshuru territories (OCHA, 31/05/2015).
Beni: 24,000 people were displaced in early May in the north, in addition to 91,000 still displaced since October–February (OCHA, 02/06/2015). More than 15,000 people have been displaced to Beni from Mavivi and other villages following ADF attacks (OCHA, 20/05/2015).
Rutshuru: Some 13,000 people returned to Rutshuru territory between March and April, though this has slowed in May (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
Walikale: Hundreds of households have fled abuse by armed groups and are seeking refuge in Walikale centre, Kibua, Mpofi, Pinga, and at the border with Lubero territory. They are staying with host families, and lack food, clothes, and access to healthcare (Radio Okapi, 06/06/2015).1,800 people were displaced in Ntoto due to clashes between Raiya Mutomboki factions. An assessment shows families are hosting up to 15 people and most people left without personal affects (OCHA, 23/06/2015). Misau and Muna localities in Ihana have been abandoned since 24 June due to clashes between factions of the Nduma Defense of Congo (NDC), also known as the Mayi Mayi Cheka. The population has fled to Kibua and Pinga (Radio Okapi, 27/06/2015).
At 31 March, 661,400 IDPs were in South Kivu (OCHA, 10/06/2015). At 31 March, there were 209,600 returnees from the past 18 months (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
As of end March, there were 550,490 IDPs in Orientale province (OCHA, 19/02/2015; 30/04/2015). Around 389,230 people are displaced in Ituri district (OCHA, 22/05/2015).
Some 6,000 IDPs arrived in Bwanasura and Nsalia, Irumu territory, between end of April and 17 May due to ADF attacks (OCHA, 27/05/2015). From 8–12 May 4,000 people were displaced to Sorodo and Gety Etat localities following FARDC offensives on armed groups, including the FRPI (OCHA, 22/05/2015). Most of the population of Aveba, Irumu territory, who had fled FARDC–FRPI clashes in late May, had returned on 7 June (Radio Okapi, 07/06/2015).
More than 3,400 IDPs have been displaced in Bili, Bondo territory, since 12 April after clashes between FARDC and LRA. At end May they had not yet received assistance and were living in critical conditions (OCHA, 27/05/2015).
More than 1,600 IDPs arrived in Mambasa, Ituri territory, between end May and early June, fleeing Mayi-Mayi clashes (OCHA, 24/06/2015).
Katanga hosts 460,600 IDPs, including 24,400 displaced in the first quarter of 2015 (OCHA, 19/02/2015; 15/04/2015; 21/04/2015). 73% are living with host families and 27% in IDP sites (OCHA, 21/04/2015).
8,000 people have fled to Katanga and eastern Maniema following Mayi-Mayi attacks (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
As of 31 March, there are a total of 322,293 returnees in Katanga, including 84,500 who returned in the first quarter of 2015 (OCHA, 30/04/2015; 21/04/2015). 60% of the 4,700 IDPs in Cotanga camp returned to their villages at the end of May. Dire conditions in the camp, insecurity, and hostility from the host population could be reasons for their return (OCHA, 27/05/2015).
Maniema hosts 181,520 IDPs as of 30 March (OCHA, 21/04/2015). 23,442 IDPs were in camps in Kabambare territory in May. The host population of these areas is 9,442 (OCHA, 26/05/2015). More than 12,000 IDPs from Missi, fleeing Mayi-Mayi attacks, are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance in Babuyu. More than 20 attacks on IDPs have been recorded, raising concerns of ethnic tensions between the host and displaced populations (local media, 12/06/2015)
As of 30 March, there were 1,200 returnees since January 2015 (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
17,000 IDPs are without assistance in Walendu Bini. They are in need of food, shelter and NFIs, having fled clashes between the FARDC and the FRPI (Radio Okapi, 18/06/2015).
Refugees in DRC
DRC hosts more than 225,020 refugees (UNHCR, 28/02/2015; USAID, 15/04/2015; OCHA, 30/04/2015). DRC provincial authorities insist that assistance should only be delivered within camps, making it difficult to support refugees in host communities.
From CAR: As of 31 May there were 99,265 CAR refugees in DRC, with 5,132 new arrivals in May (UNHCR, 31/05/2015). The transfer of refugees to a new camp for 19,000 in Bili, Bosobolo territory started in March and is expected to last 14 weeks (Radio Okapi, 14/03/2015). As of 15 May, 4,158 CAR refugees were registered in Bili camp (UNHCR, 15/05/2015).
From Rwanda: DRC is hosting 117,300 Rwandan refugees (UNHCR, 28/02/2015; 30/10/2014; UN 30/12/2014).
From Burundi: As of 4 June, some 10,590 Burundian refugees have arrived in Fizi and Uvira territories, South Kivu (OCHA, 31/05/2015). More than 8,200 are living with host families and 2,250 have been transferred to the Lusenda site in Fizi territory (WFP, 19/06/2015). FDLR presence in hosting areas is a concern (UNHCR, 18/05/2015; 05/06/2015; OCHA, 27/05/2015). Prior to the recent influx, there were 9,000 Burundian refugees in DRC (OCHA, 27/05/2015). The number of people crossing into DRC is gradually decreasing (IFRC, 04/06/2015). About 200 refugees in Kabamare, Maniema, need urgent water food, cooking tools and healthcare (Radio Okapi, 15/06/2015). The Government will grant temporary status to the new Burundian refugees (OCHA, 15/06/2015).
From Angola: There are 560 Angolan refugees registered in DRC; 28,000 are undergoing voluntary repatriation (UNHCR, 28/02/2015). As of 23 April, at least 15,520 Angolan refugees have returned from the DRC (Government, 30/04/2015).
Angola: Between 1 January and May, 29,881 DRC citizens were deported from Angola (Soyo and Cabinda provinces) (OCHA, 04/06/2015). About 14,000 DRC were expelled from Angola over 16-30 May (Radio Okapi, 17/06/2015).
Burundi: 325 DRC refugees previously in Burundi have returned to Uvira territory (OCHA, 23/04/2015).
DRC Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
There are around 442,440 DRC refugees in neighbouring countries, mainly in Uganda (178,220), Rwanda (73,560), Burundi (53,860), Tanzania (55,870), Congo (23,450), Kenya (15,630), South Sudan (14,630), and CAR (5,340) (UNHCR, 31/03/2015; 17/02/2015; 01/01/2015; 31/12/2014). Since January, more than 4,500 people have fled to Uganda from eastern DRC (ACT Alliance, 05/06/2015).
6.6 million people are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes as a result of armed group activity, inter-communal violence, and displacement (OCHA, 30/04/2015; Integrated Food Security Phase Classification, 28/01/2015; USAID, 15/04/2015). Ituri (Orientale), Boende (Equateur), Punia (Maniema), Shabunda (South Kivu), Manono, Mitwaba and Pweto (Katanga) are all in Emergency phase (Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 22/05/2015).
Orientale: 260,000 IDPs, returnees and local communities are affected in Geti area, Irumu territory: food security was Emergency in December 2014 (OCHA, 19/04/2015).
North Kivu: Farmers are having difficulties accessing their fields because of movement restrictions imposed by the FARDC and the FDLR, who tend to ask for payment for passage (OCHA, 19/04/2015). An assessment of Mugunga 3 camp showed that food insecurity increased from 48.7% in January to 60.4% in February. Households were adopting negative coping strategies (WFP, 28/04/2015).
Maniema: More than 21,000 households (151,200 people) face food insecurity following a fungus in crops in Kibombo territory. The region’s production of cassava, rice and banana has decreased by 62%, 73%, and 91%, respectively. More than 3,000 hectares of rice crops have been damaged (OCHA, 21/04/2015). In December 2014, Kibombo territory was in Crisis food insecurity (OCHA, 26/05/2015).
Health and Nutrition
23,000 people in Masisi territory, North Kivu, do not have access to health services (OCHA, 11/02/2015). More than 17,500 IDPs and host families in north Beni, North Kivu, need health assistance (OCHA, 14/04/2015).
In South Kivu, 60% of the population in Uvira, Fizi, and Walungu territories do not have healthcare (OCHA, 29/06/2015).
In Orientale, 29 cases of meningitis and one death were reported over 4–10 May (OCHA, 27/05/2015). The same period saw 26,332 cases of malaria and 55 deaths (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
In Maniema, GAM is 10% and SAM 2%, with Kailo and Kabambare territories most affected (OCHA, 31/05/2015).
In Katanga, 12,200 cases of measles were reported from 1 January to end May, including 186 deaths, 50% more than for the same period in 2014 (OCHA, 31/05/2015). 12 health zones are affected. Malemba health zone, Malemba-Nkulu territory, is the worst affected with an average of 1,500 cases per week (OCHA, 31/05/2015). Some 16,000 more cases have been reported in other parts of the country (OCHA, 31/05/2015). A fire in a hospital in Pweto, Katanga province, on 23 June destroyed medical supplies including vaccines against polio and measles (Radio Okapi, 24/06/2015).
6,000 cases of cholera, including 58 deaths, were recorded from January to 17 May, compared to 8,200 for the same period in 2014 (UNICEF, 22/06/2015). Most affected provinces are Katanga and South Kivu. 35% of all cases (2,170) have been recorded in Katanga as of 17 May, including 38 deaths (OCHA, 25/05/2015).
North Kivu and Orientale are also affected. In North Kivu, an increase in cholera cases (more than 30) has been reported in Nkassa and Kailenge, Pinga region, Walikale territory (OCHA, 02/06/2015). In Orientale province, 126 cases of cholera, including eight deaths, were recorded in Gety health zone 23-31 May (OCHA, 24/06/2015).
In 2014, there were 22,200 cases of cholera and 372 deaths (WHO, 31/12/2014; UNICEF, 24/12/2014).
Inke and Mole refugee camps, Equateur, provide an average of 10.5L of water per person per day, significantly below standards (UNHCR, 15/05/2015).
An estimated 4.3 million people require WASH assistance in North Kivu, including 5,000 IDPs in Bwalanda, Kashilira and Kikuiku sites in Rutshuru territory, where there is a lack of WASH actors (OCHA, 20/05/2015; 14/04/2015).
Only 40% of the population of Maniema province have access to potable water (OCHA, 02/04/2015).
In N’sele commune, Kinshasa, 376,000 people have limited access to safe water (Radio Okapi, 18/06/2015).
1,500 CAR refugees are in need of shelter in Inke camp due to a lack of plastic sheeting. No shelters have been built in four weeks (UNHCR, 15/05/2015).
21,000 IDPs from North Kivu are in need of shelter in Komanda, Orientale (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
7.3 million children aged 5–17 – 28% of the school-aged population – are not attending school (Radio Okapi, 10/03/2015).
One million children are in need of education in North Kivu (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
In South Kivu, on average, 12,300 students cannot access schools every month, due to conflict and natural disasters (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
In Katanga, 6,000 school-aged children are out of school in Kalemie, Manono, and Nyunzu territories due to clashes between Batwa and Luba, fires, and heavy rains (OCHA, 08/04/2015). More than 85% of the 2,000 school-aged children in Kasanga Nyemba, Kalemie territory, are not attending school (OCHA, 22/04/2015). A school was burned in Garenganze, Manono territory, following clashes between Luba and pygmies. 4,600 students are affected (Radio Okapi, 17/05/2015). More than 30 schools in Kaumulu, Malemba-Nkulu territory, have been closed since March 2015 due to clashes between the Mayi-Mayi and the FARDC (Radio Okapi, 20/05/2015).
Some 3,000 students in Aveba, Ituri district in Orientale, risk not being able to take their final exams in June due to insecurity (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
Among refugees from CAR, about 75% of school-age children living in refugee camps (12,256) are not going to school due to lack of infrastructure and teachers (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Military, militias, and other armed groups are accused of abuses against civilians, including arbitrary arrests, extortion, looting, child conscription, sexual violence, and executions.
In Orientale, 12,300 protection incidents against civilians were reported in 2014, compared to 4,800 in 2013 (OCHA, 04/02/2015). In Haut-Uele district, 485 incidents were reported in the first three weeks of May 2015 (OCHA, 27/05/2015). In May, 935 protection incidents were registered in Ituri district, compared to 1,983 in April (OCHA, 03/06/2015). An NGO report determined that 40% of Orientale’s surface contains mines (Radio Okapi, 04/04/2015).
Sexual violence has been a common element of warfare by the armed groups and soldiers in eastern DRC since the breakout of war in the early 1990s. 127 women reported being sexually abused after an attack by dozens of armed men in Kikamba town, South Kivu on 1 May (MSF, 15/05/2015).
Orientale: 90% of the 2,900 SGBV cases reported in Orientale in 2014 occurred in Ituri territory, the others in Uele territory (OCHA, 08/04/2015; 19/04/2015). In Haut-Uele district, 110 SGBV incidents were reported in the first three weeks of May, and 138 in April (OCHA, 27/05/2015). On 10 May, 26 women were raped by FRPI in Apihinji and Mbulumbulu localities (OCHA, 22/05/2015).
Katanga: There were more than 600 cases of SGBV reported From January–March in Katanga. 50% came from Nyunzu territory (OCHA, 22/04/2015).
1,680 SGBV cases were reported in 2014 in Katanga and 840 in Kasai-Occidental (OCHA, 05/02/2015; Radio Okapi, 11/02/2015). 2,012 were reported in Orientale province, and 1,123 in Bas-Congo (OCHA, 10/12/2014, 03/12/2014; Radio Okapi, 27/11/2014).
No new significant developments this week, 30/06/2015. Last update: 10/06/2015.
- 1.2 million people, including 696,000 children under 18, are in need of humanitarian assistance (UNICEF, 15/01/2015).
- Over 60% of the Eritrean population was reported as undernourished between 2011 and 2013 (WFP).
- Torture, arbitrary detention, and indefinite national service are the grave human right concerns reported in Eritrea (UNHRC).
- Ongoing human rights abuses prompt thousands of Eritreans to flee the country every year. In March 2015, Ethiopia was hosting 133, 348 Eritrean refugees (OCHA, 20/04/2015).
- Operations and maintenance of established humanitarian systems remain a significant challenge (UNICEF, 15/01/2015).
Eritrea is a one-party state governed by President Isaias Afwerk and his party People’s Front for Democracy and Justice. No national elections have been held since Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia in 1993.
Humanitarian Context and Needs
1.2 million people need humanitarian assistance, including 696,000 children under 18 (UNICEF, 15/01/2015).
There is a lack of updated and reliable data on the humanitarian situation due to limited humanitarian access. Providing direct humanitarian assistance remains a challenge due to limited access, and absence of assessments and humanitarian space (ECHO).
As of May 2015, there were 2,802 Somali refugees in Eritrea (UNHCR, 22/05/2015).
Eritrean Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
The entire Eritrean refugee population is estimated to constitute more than 321, 000 people (Guardian, 21/04/2015). UN estimates that some 4,000 Eritreans, among them hundreds of unaccompanied minors, are fleeing the country every month to escape government repression and lack of basic freedoms. Eritreans constitute the second biggest group of migrants arriving in Italy by boat, after Syrians (Reuters, 24/03/2015). In 2014, more than 37,000 Eritrean refugees sought refuge in Europe, the vast majority arriving by boat across the Mediterranean (UNHCR). The high proportion of unaccompanied minors who cross from Eritrea to Ethiopia is a priority concern (UNHCR).
Ethiopia: At the end of April, there were 135,655 Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia (UNHCR, 30/04/2015), mainly settled in four camps in the northern Tigray and Afar regions (UNICEF, 21/04/2015). Arrival rates spiked towards the end of 2014, with a total of 33,000 arriving by the end of the year (UNHCR, 09/02/2015). The influx has resulted in shortages of shelter in the camps (OCHA, 26/01/2015).
Sudan: Sudan reportedly hosts at least 114,500 Eritrean refugees (UNHCR).
Djibouti: As of 1 January, there were 1,240 Eritrean refugees in Djibouti (UNHCR, 30/01/2015).
Kenya: As of 1 June, there were 1,595 Eritrean refugees in Kenya; the majority located in Nairobi (UNHCR, 08/06/2015).
Very poor rainfall since February, including extremely sporadic rain since mid-March, has led to drought conditions in eastern Eritrea (FEWSNET, 30/05/2015).
It is estimated that Eritrea produces only 60% of the food it needs, and markets appear to be dysfunctional. These two factors suggest that a significant part of the population may be in need of food assistance. Due to extensive national service, farmers are routinely absent during harvest periods (Economist, 10/03/2014). In addition, local food and fuel prices are likely to be high, putting severe pressure on household coping mechanisms. The Government officially denies any food shortages within its borders and refuses food aid (ECHO).
Health and Nutrition
According to FAO in 2013, over 60% of the Eritrean population was reported to be undernourished between 2011 and 2013.
According to a June 2015 report by the UN Human Rights Council, grave human rights violations are widespread. Eritreans are deprived of fundamental freedoms by the authorities, and are routinely and arbitrarily arrested, detained, and tortured. Disappearances or extrajudicial executions were also reported (UNHRC, 04/06/2015). Eritreans are subject to systems of national service and forced labour in which individuals are effectively detained indefinitely (UNHRC, 04/06/2015).
Mines and ERW
UNICEF reported in January 2015 that the impact of landmines and ERWs continue to have a serious impact on the population, including causing deaths, injuries and disabilities. Humanitarian mine action programmes in the country have been scaled down due to limited access (UNICEF, 15/01/2015).
Iraq Country Analysis
29 June: The rate of water flow in the Euphrates River has more than halved, threatening access to drinking water for populations in several governorates (local media; WHO).
26 June: Food security is deteriorating for IDPs and people living in unfinished housing or camps (WFP).
25 June: Around 9,750 returnees to Tikrit in Salah al Din need NFIs and shelter repair support (UNDP; OCHA).
24 June: 14 people were killed and 24 wounded in an IS attack at a gathering of Sunni tribal leaders in Diyala (AFP).
- Around 1,030 deaths recorded in May, including around 665 civilians. 12,000 people were killed in 2014, corresponding to the worst levels of violence since 2006–2007 (UNAMI, 02/05/2015; 01/01/2015).
- 8.2 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance, including more than three million IDPs (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015).
- Access continues to be severely constrained in large parts of Anbar, Diyala, Kirkuk, Ninewa and Salah al Din (UN, 01/05/2015).
- 249,660 registered Syrian refugees are in Iraq; 64% are women and children (UNHCR, 15/06/2015).
- Protection is a key concern, particularly in areas directly affected by conflict and under Islamic State (IS) control.
The IS insurgency has compounded an already fragile political and humanitarian situation, leading to a level 3 humanitarian crisis and international military intervention. Iraq now hosts one of the largest internally displaced populations in the world. Priority needs are food, water, shelter, fuel, and access to healthcare. Access constraints and human rights violations, particularly in IS-controlled areas, are of major concern. There are large information gaps on the situation of affected populations outside of the Kurdistan region of Iraq.
National Political Context
The perceived marginalisation of Sunni groups by former President Maliki’s Government is considered one of the main drivers of the current conflict. A unity government, led by President Abadi, was formed in September 2014. While trying to balance sectarian tensions inside the country, Abadi has been seeking to garner international support for the fight against Islamic State (IS), including from neighbouring Sunni Arab states (Foreign Affairs, 16/01/2015).
Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KR-I)
Masoud Barzani’s Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) have ruled the autonomous KR-I through a coalition government since 2005. Barzani’s term has been extended to 2015, a move denounced as illegal by the opposition. A budget agreement between Baghdad and Erbil around oil revenues was incorporated into Iraq's 2015 national budget law late January, but tensions resurfaced in May (UNHCR, 31/05/2015; local media, 26/04/2015; UN, 02/12/2014).
Around 1,030 Iraqis were killed in acts of violence in May, including 665 civilians, in an increase on April; Baghdad was the most affected (UNAMI, 01/06/2015). At least 12,000 people were killed and more than 23,000 injured in 2014, in the worst violence since 2006–2007. Reported casualty numbers are hard to verify in conflict areas (UNAMI, 01/01/2015).
Islamic State: In June 2014, IS declared the establishment of a Sunni caliphate, covering the area between Aleppo in northern Syria and Diyala in eastern Iraq. Abu Bakr al Baghdadi was declared caliph and leader for Muslims worldwide. IS now controls nearly 300,000km2 of territory in Syria and Iraq (AFP, 01/06/2015). It has attracted more than 20,000 foreign fighters (ICSR, 21/01/2015; NBC, 02/2015).
Government Forces: Iraqi Security Forces (ISF), made up of around 48,000 troops, are involved in offensives around Baghdad, and in central governorates (Foreign Policy, 28/03/2015). Falling global oil prices have led to significant budget deficits, hampering the government’s capacity to undertake military operations and finance basic services for affected populations (Deutsche Welle, 11/06/2015).
Shi’a militias: Three militias have been supporting government forces on all major fronts against IS since the beginning of the insurgency, as part of the Popular Mobilisation Forces: Asa’ib, Kita’ib Hezbollah, and the Badr Brigades. The Popular Mobilisation Forces are made up of around 100,000 fighters, including 30,000 reportedly backed by the Iranian Government (Al Jazeera, 23/01/2015).
KR-I Forces: The Kurdish Peshmerga, supported by Kurdish fighters from Syria and Turkey, are engaged in a counteroffensive against IS. Kurdish fighters receive training and equipment from multiple countries, including the United States (AFP).
International Involvement: In August 2014, US forces started airstrikes on IS locations. On 15 September, 30 additional countries pledged to help Iraq fight IS. Iran has dispatched members of its elite Revolutionary Guards Corps and reportedly carried out airstrikes against IS (The Economist, 03/01/2015; The Guardian, 05/01/2015, 04/12/2014).
ISF and Kurdish forces have regained territory in 2015, recapturing populated areas of Diyala in January, and Al Baghdadi in Anbar early March (AFP, 26/01/2015; 08/03/2015). Peshmerga forces are fighting IS in Kirkuk. IS made significant gains in Anbar in April.
Anbar: Unidentified gunmen killed at least eight people in Amiriyat al Falluja and wounded 17 on 9 June (AFP, 09/06/2015). IS captured Ramadi on 17 May, killing at least 500 people in the operation against ISF and associated militias; ISF was still surrounding the city as of 18 June. ISF had launched operations to retake Anbar on 8 April (ISW, 19/06/2015; 15/04/2015; AFP, 17/05/2015). Clashes have been ongoing in and around Falluja since 25–26 April, and a curfew is in place in the southeast of the city (ISW, 19/06/2015; OCHA, 28/04/2015).
Baghdad has seen nearly daily bombings and shootings since November 2014. An explosion on 17 June killed three and wounded ten in Kadhimiya area (ISW, 19/06/2015). Around 20 people were killed in a series of blasts across the governorate on 9 June (AFP, 09/06/2015). Two IS bombings on 29 May killed nine and wounded dozens (AFP, 29/05/2015). At least ten were killed in attacks targeting Shi’ite worshippers marching to a Baghdad shrine over 12–14 May (AFP, 14/05/2015; 12/05/2015).
Diyala: 14 people were killed and 24 wounded in an IS attack at a gathering of Sunni tribal leaders on 24 June (AFP, 24/06/2015). An IS suicide attack in Baladruz killed at least 15 and wounded 34 on 7 June (AFP, 07/06/2015). On 24 May, eight bombs exploded in Baquba and Baladruz, wounding 14 (AFP, 24/05/2015).
Kirkuk: A suicide attack on an Iraqi police base supporting operations to cut off IS supply lines to Anbar killed at least 37 people and wounded more than 30 on 1 June (AFP, 02/06/2015). Peshmerga and Popular Mobilisation forces began operations to dislodge IS from areas of southwestern Kirkuk in February, recapturing Bashir and surrounding villages by March (ISW, 18/03/2015). This cooperation is significant, as visible tensions between Kurdish and Shi’ite rivals over control of Kirkuk city are raising fears that IS will exploit the divisions to advance (ISW, 13/03/2015; Ekurd Daily, 17/02/2015; The Daily Beast, 17/02/2015).
Ninewa: IS continues to carry out security operations south of Mosul, to control tribal resistance and safeguard one of its most important areas of control (ISW, 17/06/2015).
Salah al Din: Coordinated IS suicide bombings near Baiji killed 11 and wounded 27 on 13 June (AFP, 13/06/2015). Clashes around Baiji oil refinery increased early May, as IS cut off supply routes and occupied positions within the facility (ISW, 08/05/2015). By end March, Iraqi forces and supporters had reportedly recaptured Albu Ajil, Tal Ksaiba, Al Alam, Al Dour, and Tikrit from IS (local media, 31/03/2015; WSJ, 13/02/2015; Al Jazeera, 08/03/2015). Tensions then rose between government forces and allied militias (Reuters, 04/04/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
As of June, 8.2 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance, including 3.7 million children, compared to 5.2 and 2.6 million end February; the number is projected to reach 9.9 million by end 2015 (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015; UNICEF, 28/02/2015). More than 50% of humanitarian programmes are at risk of closure or cutbacks (OCHA, 08/06/2015; UNAMA/UNCT, 03/06/2015).
Around 2.2 million people in need of emergency assistance are beyond the reach of aid agencies, and access to the estimated 5.1 million people in areas under armed opposition groups’ control is limited (IOM, 10/06/2015; ECHO, 12/12/2014). Several INGOs have suspended activities in IS-controlled areas, or provide emergency assistance through local partners. High insecurity and unexploded ordnance (UXO) also hinders access, as do long delays in obtaining clearance from Iraqi authorities (OCHA, 05/12/2014).
Border crossings: The Ibrahim Khalil border crossing has been closed to Syrians from Kobane since 2 March; most refugees have entered via the Peshkabour crossing (UNHCR, 15/03/2015). Insecurity prevents most civilian movement at the IS-controlled Al Qa’im and Al Waleed crossings, as well as at Rabia (Reuters, 23/11/2014; UNHCR, 28/02/2015; 15/01/2015).
IDP movement restrictions: Over 30% of IDPs are forced to stay within their governorate, due to movement restrictions imposed by neighbouring governorates; restrictions have been reported in Baghdad, Salah al Din, and Anbar (IOM, 15/01/2014; Protection Cluster, 15/01/2015). Access to and in KR-I remains challenging for certain IDPs, particularly those of Arab ethnicity (UNHCR/Protection Cluster, 28/02/2015; OCHA, 23/01/2015).
New IDPs from Anbar face serious restrictions accessing neighbouring provinces: Babylon and Kerbala are closed to them. IDPs must provide a sponsor for admission into Baghdad from Bzabz bridge. IDPs attempting to enter KR-I by land also require a local guarantor: 220 families remained stranded at Kalar checkpoint (to enter Sulaymaniyah) as of 23 June, in urgent need of WASH support (OCHA, 23/06/2015; UNHCR, 29/05/2015; OCHA, 31/05/2015).
Anbar remains largely inaccessible, especially as IS is increasing its control of main routes (UNICEF, 03/06/2015). Insecurity continues to hamper response and assessments (OCHA, 16/06/2015). Control of the roads toward Al Baghdadi continues to shift between ISF and IS, which has delayed transportation of food and medical supplies to both Al Baghdadi subdistrict (including Al Obaidy refugee camp) and Haditha district (OCHA, 28/04/2015). IS checkpoints have proliferated in Hit district, preventing civilian movements outside the city (OCHA, 05/05/2015).
Diyala: UN staff members were abducted by unidentified gunmen end April, and have not been located since (UN, 08/05/2015).
Ninewa: Access to Mosul is impossible for humanitarian actors and communications with areas outside the city are allegedly cut off. Civilians are prevented from leaving the city. Conditions have dramatically deteriorated since IS took control (OCHA, 02/03/2015; WFP, 02/02/2015).
Salah al Din: People wishing to return to Tikrit must now be sponsored by police or army officials (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
There are nearly three million IDPs, 248,200 Syrian refugees, and 1.5 million people in need of assistance in host communities.
As of 18 June, there are nearly 3.09 million IDPs in 3,312 locations. 29% are in KR-I (1.1 million) including 441,350 in Dahuk and 266,330 in Erbil. Anbar hosts 548,230 IDPs, Baghdad 511,760, and Kirkuk 371,800. 67% of IDPs are living in private settings, mainly in Anbar and Baghdad, 21% in critical shelter arrangements, and 9% in 81 IDP camps, mainly in Dahuk and Ninewa (UNHCR/CCCM, 25/06/2015; IOM, 18/06/2015). The number and spread of IDPs pose a major challenge to needs assessment and assistance (IOM, 02/12/2014).
Anbar: More than 292,300 people are believed to have been displaced from and within Anbar since military operations began on 8 April, including 154,180 from Ramadi district over 15 May–23 June ((UNICEF, 23/06/2015). Of those displaced since April, 44% went to Baghdad and 40% stayed in Anbar; during the second wave of displacement, 74% have been displaced within Anbar, with a high concentration in Falluja and Khaldiya subdistricts in Ramadi. Ramadi displaced are in urgent need of health, shelter, food and NFI support (WHO, 07/06/2015; IOM, 31/05/2015). Many civilians have not been able to flee to safer areas due to ad hoc entry restrictions and insecurity (NRC, 21/05/2015).
Salah al Din: 1,000 new IDPs in Samarra district are in urgent need of food, shelter, and WASH assistance, as they are prevented from entering Samarra city (OCHA, 09/06/2015). Populations have begun returning to Tikrit and Alam, where the cities’ local police force and militia are keeping order; Dour and Albu Ajil, where many supported IS, remain however empty (local media, 23/06/2015).
900,000 IDP returnees are in need of assistance throughout Iraq (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015). Around 9,750 returnees to Tikrit in Salah al Din end June need NFIs shelter repair support, including electricity (UNDP, 25/06/2015; OCHA, 23/06/2015). Between 27 March and 4 June, 180,380 IDPs returned to their place of origin, including 31% to Ninewa and 30% to Diyala. 19% are in critical shelters (IOM, 18/06/2015).
Heavily disrupted basic services and infrastructure, property destruction, mines, IEDs, insecurity, and lost documentation all increase the risks for returnees (UNHCR, 15/04/2015).
Refugees in Iraq
As of 15 June, 249,660 Syrian refugees were registered in Iraq; 43% are female, and 42% children. KR-I hosts an estimated 97%, with 112,040 in Erbil, 99,510 in Dahuk and 30,180 in Sulaymaniyah; 4,510 were last known to be in Anbar and 1,300 in Ninewa (UNHCR, 15/06/2015). Refugees from Aleppo continue to arrive at the Peshkhabour border, but numbers have decreased to 100 per week (UNHCR, 25/05/2015; 30/04/2015).
37.6% of refugees live in nine camps; over half are in Domiz camp in Dahuk (47,430), 10,110 in Kawergosk, and 10,210 in Darashakran in Erbil (UNHCR, 15/06/2015). The number of Syrian refugees in Al Obaidy camp in IS-controlled Al Qa’im in Anbar significantly decreased January–March, to 851; access constraints make it difficult to fully understand the situation (UNHCR, 15/03/2015, 04/03/2015).
As of end May, nearly 7,060 Syrian refugees have returned to Syria in 2015. Reasons for return include high living cost in the KR-I, lack of job opportunities and family reunification (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
There are also 41,700 non-Syrian refugees (UNHCR, 23/04/2015).
Iraqi Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
Around 258,000 Iraqi refugees are thought to be residing in neighbouring countries, including 200,000 in Turkey, 47,000 in Jordan (the Government estimated 58,000), 8,700 in Lebanon, and over 3,000 in Yemen (PI, 07/01/2015; UNHCR, 30/04/2015).
4.4 million people urgently need food assistance (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015). Food security is deteriorating, particularly for IDPs and people living in unfinished housing or camps. In a May assessment, 15.7% of IDP households had poor or borderline food consumption, compared to 3% of non-displaced households (WFP, 26/06/2015). One-third of new IDPs in Anbar have borderline food consumption and are most vulnerable to food insecurity (WFP, 01/06/2015).
The October–November and April–May agricultural seasons were significantly affected by conflict, especially in major producing areas such as Salah al Din, Ninewa, and Anbar. Delayed government seed distribution end 2014 impacted planting and prospects for the 2015 winter crop are uncertain (FAO, 27/05/2015). IS controls major wheat storage silos in Ninewa and Salah al Din (FAO 10/02/2015).
3.4 million people are in need of emergency livelihood support, compared to 800,000 end February (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015; UN, 18/02/2015). IDPs’ financial conditions are deteriorating, and unemployment is rising in IS-controlled areas (UNHCR, 15/03/2015; OCHA, 02/03/2015). In conflict-affected areas, casual labour opportunities are limited and wage rates are low (WFP, 11/03/2015). KR-I’s poverty rate increased from 3.5% to 8.1% between 2013 and 2014. GDP growth in Iraq declined by five percentage points to 3% in 2014 (World Bank/Government, 12/02/2015).
Food prices are high in Anbar, Ninewa, Kirkuk, Salah al Din, and Dahuk due to conflict and blocked supply lines. They rose by 28% in Anbar and 18% in Salah al Din between March and April; prices in Anbar are now 58% higher than in Baghdad (WFP, 01/06/2015; FAO, 27/05/2015). Government support via the PDS is limited in conflict areas; 80% of households reporting having received no rations in April (WFP, 01/06/2015; FAO, 27/05/2015).
Refugees: Refugees resort to a rising range of negative coping mechanisms in Dahuk due to high food prices (UNHCR, 15/04/2015). The ability to find sustainable job opportunities is still severely limited, and hampered by competition. As of February, only 5% of refugees targeted for access to wage employment in 2015 had been reached (DRC/UNDP, 28/02/2015).
Health and Nutrition
More than 7.8 million people need health support, including 6.9 million critically. 90% of sponsored health projects risk being closed in July, if funding is not secured (UN, 23/06/2015; WHO, 04/06/2015).
14 major hospitals and more than 170 other health facilities are non-functional or destroyed, while functioning facilities are overburdened. 45% of health staff has been displaced. Key concerns include the lack of specialised services; recurrent shortages of essential medicines and other supplies, especially in Anbar, Salah al Din, and Ninewa; disruption of treatment for patients with chronic illnesses; mental health support, and the risk posed by communicable diseases (WHO, 04/06/2015).
Limited or unavailable treatment for tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and hepatitis are major concerns in Salah al Din and Kirkuk (WHO, 16/03/2015). Low vaccination coverage in Najaf is a concern (WHO, 28/06/2015).
Acute diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, and scabies remain the most common illnesses among refugees and IDPs in camps; diarrhea and respiratory infections have been gradually increasing since end May (WHO/Government, 07/06/2015).
Anbar: Most health facilities in Khaljdiya are reported to have closed following the departure of health workers (WHO, 07/06/2015). Ramadi’s main hospital came under IS control on 16 May (OCHA, 17/05/2015). The city hospital in Hit district is also reportedly no longer accessible for civilians (OCHA, 05/05/2015). Critical shortages of essential medicines are reported by functioning health structures (ECHO, 16/02/2015). Shortages of fuel have affected healthcare delivery. Increased acute illnesses and chronic diseases are reported from Al Baghdadi district, while health concerns are rising in Habbaniya and Abu Ghraib district in Anbar due to inadequate sanitation and skin and waterborne diseases (OCHA, 26/05/2015; 15/05/2015).
Kirkuk: 23% of health facilities are not functioning (WHO, 27/04/2015).
Mosul: Only two units of the main hospital remain functional, staffing levels are down to 30–50%, and severe medicine shortages have been reported (AFP, 12/2014).
Ninewa: The majority of health facilities in Sinjar remain closed due to infrastructure damage, as well as lack of staff and medical equipment (WHO, 28/06/2015).
Salah al Din: None of the three hospitals in Tikrit, Salah al Din, are functioning (WHO, 27/04/2015).
Sulaymaniyah: Overcrowding in Arbat IDP camp has reportedly led to referrals to medical facilities in Sulaymaniyah city, putting additional pressure on the health infrastructure (OCHA, 23/03/2015).
Refugees: 20% of the non-camp population has difficulty accessing health services, due to cost and perceived availability (WHO/UNHCR, 28/02/2015). Access to specialised primary services, including mental healthcare and control of communicable diseases, remain priorities in camps (UNHCR, 15/05/2015).
7.2 million people need WASH support (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015). Access to safe water is a critical problem in areas affected by conflict or controlled by armed groups (WHO, 01/02/2015).
The rater of water flow in the Euphrates River has more than halved since IS took control of the dams in Ramadi and Falluja early June; this is threatening access to drinking water for populations in Anbar but also Kerbala, Babylon, Najaf, and Qadisiyah governorates. Critical shortages of safe drinking water have also been reported in Basra IDP camp in Thiqar governorate (local media, 29/06/2015; WHO, 28/06/2015).
IDP sites in Baghdad, Anbar, Salah al Din, Babylon and Najaf, need WASH support (OCHA, 28/04/2015). 25,000 IDPs in Chamishku IDP camp in Dahuk also require assistance (OCHA, 16/06/2015).
Refugees: Transition to safe water supply and sanitation in Qushtapa, Kawergosk, Darashakran, and Basirma camps is ongoing, but challenged by funding. In Basirma, the latrine ratio is 23:1, while garbage collection remains an issue in camps in Erbil (UNICEF/UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Shelter and NFIs
Around 2.9 million people require shelter and NFI support, mainly in non-camp settings in central and southern Iraq; IDPs in informal, unmanaged settlements are of highest concern (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015; UNHCR/Shelter Cluster, 02/05/2015). Many IDPs in Ninewa also live in critical shelter conditions (OCHA, 05/05/2015).
New IDPs from Anbar live in overcrowded conditions in Habbaniya and Falluja, without access to clean water and proper sanitation (UNHCR, 29/05/2015). Qoratu camp in Diyala is now hosting 1,500 IDPs from Ramadi who are in difficult conditions under extremely high temperatures (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Many people outside Al Hwesh IDP camp in Salah al Din, which reached full capacity, are in urgent need of shelter solutions. Around 2,850 people are also in need of shelter support in Kerbala governorate (OCHA, 16/06/2015). At least 70 tents were damaged or destroyed by a fire on 9 June in Yawa IDP camp in Diyala (OCHA, 09/06/2015). Arbat IDP camp in Sulaymaniyah hosts 17,660 people instead of the planned 4,800: access to basic services is of major concern (OCHA, 02/03/2015; CCCM, 11/06/2015). Overcrowded Laylan camp in Kirkuk also needs support (OCHA, 03/04/2015). 14 camps are under construction for an additional capacity of 349,650 people (CCCM, 02/03/2015).
Refugees: Refugees in Erbil and Dahuk are seeking to move to camps, due to increasing cost of living, limited employment prospects, and high rents (UNHCR, 31/05/2015). 26% of shelters in refugee camps in KRI are unimproved (Government/UNHCR, 31/05/2015). Basirma, Kawergosk, Akre, Darashakran, and Domiz camps’ capacities are exhausted; overcrowding in Erbil is an increasing concern (Government/UNHCR, 31/05/2014). In Sulaymaniyah, refugees renting houses are facing eviction due to pressure on accommodation (UNHCR, 15/03/2015).
3.1 million people are in need of education support. Over 500 schools, including 376 in Anbar, remain occupied by IDPs, and an estimated 130 by the military, affecting 39,000 children (OCHA, 21/04/2015).
Of the 850,000 school-aged IDP children, nearly 76% have lost an entire year of school. 45% of school-aged IDP children in camps are enrolled in schools, compared to only 30% of those out of camps (Education Cluster, 10/06/2015).
Refugees: 76% of school-aged refugee children in camps are attending school, compared to 63% of those out of camps (UNICEF/Save the Children, 31/05/2015). Challenges include limited capacity in schools with an Arabic curriculum, shortages of Syrian teachers, increasing schooling demand, and insecurity (UNHCR, 31/12/2014; 12/02/2015). Syrian refugee teachers have been unpaid since at least April, due to KR-I’s limited budget (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
7.9 million people are in need of protection support (OCHA/UNCT, 04/06/2015).
Widespread abuses committed by IS, including targeted attacks, killings, torture, rape and sexual slavery, forced religious conversion, and child conscription, amount to war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Sharia courts have been established in IS-controlled territories, carrying out extreme punishments against men, women, and children (UN, 19/03/2015; 20/01/2015). Violations allegedly carried out by ISF and associated militias during their counter-offensives against IS, including lootings, killings, torture and abductions, also amount to war crimes (Reuters, 04/04/2015; 21/03/2015; Amnesty, 02/04/2015).
7,200 IDPs in hotels in Kerbala governorate will face eviction end of June. Cases of detention of male youths and men in Al-Hwesh IDP camp in Salah al Din, as well as denial of access to safety, have also been reported (OCHA, 16/06/2015).
Around 10% of IDPs have no documentation, which is a prerequisite for obtaining residency permits and difficult to obtain outside a person’s area of origin. Up to 50% of displaced families report that at least one family member is missing one or more civil documents (UNHCR/Protection Cluster, 28/02/2015).
Refugees: Refugees are in need of targeted legal responses and services including registration and documentation. Residency in urban areas is reportedly being denied to Syrian asylum-seekers lacking original ID documents (UNFPA, 31/03/2015; Protection Cluster 15/01/2015). Many of the 37,500 Syrian refugee children aged 0-4 lack birth registration documents due to their parents lacking any, increasing protection risks if they are separated (UNHCR, 25/05/2015).
Accurate numbers of women and girls affected by abuses across Iraq are hard to obtain. Reports show an increase in sexual violence, abductions, trafficking, and forced recruitment towards women. IS reportedly carried out systematic sexual violence against Yezidi women and girls in northern Iraq (HRW, 15/04/2015). Due to stigmatisation, many survivors are reluctant to seek assistance (UNAMI, 08/03/2015).
Around 2.4 million children are living in the most affected governorates of Iraq. Grave violations against children, including sexual violence, maiming and forced recruitment, are prominent (UNHCR/Protection Cluster, 20/06/2015). IS has reportedly sold children as sex slaves, is using minors as suicide bombers, and providing military training to schoolchildren in Syria and Iraq (AFP, 08/06/2015; OCHA, 06/02/2015). The group also abducted 400 children in Anbar during the last week of May (OCHA, 31/05/2015).
ERW and Mines
Iraq is heavily mined, with up to 1,838m2 of contaminated territory; IS is reportedly planting more (Landmine Monitor/ICBL, IRIN, 06/11/2014).
Nigeria Country Analysis
22–28 June: Attacks in Borno state killed nearly 70 people, mainly in Maiduguri and Debiro Hawul and Debiro Bi villages (AFP; BBC).
25 June: A food security emergency is expected July–September in the northeast, with people in worst-affected areas facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes (FEWSNET).
23 June: Ten people were killed and at least 30 injured in a suicide attack at a market in Wajir, Gujba district (AFP).
- Around 5,825 deaths from Boko Haram-related violence in 2015 as of early May. 7,711 deaths from Boko Haram-related violence were reported in 2014 (ACLED, 07/05/2015; 11/01/2015).
- 4.6 million people in need of humanitarian aid, including 1.5 million IDPs (OCHA, 05/06/2015; IOM, 29/04/2015).
- Two million people are expected to be in Emergency food insecurity (IPC Phase 4) between July and September (FEWSNET, 31/05/2015).
- 1.5 million in need of nutrition assistance, including 461,000 children under five suffering from SAM (OCHA, 05/06/2015).
- 2.2 million people are in need of WASH assistance; 1 million in need of shelter and NFIs; 2.2 million in need of protection; and 3.5 million people in need of healthcare (OCHA, 06/2015).
Violence has internally displaced more than 1.5 million people, restricted movement, disrupted food supply, seriously hindered access to basic services, and limited agricultural activities. People affected by violence in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe, and neighbouring Bauchi, Taraba, and Gombe states are in urgent need of protection, shelter, food, and access to health services and education.
Muhammadu Buhari was sworn in as President on 29 May, succeeding Goodluck Jonathan, whose party had led the country since 1999. Buhari is a former president and military ruler from northern Nigeria (local media, 29/05/2015; AFP, 02/04/2015). 66 violent incidents were reported at polling stations during the April state governorship and parliamentary elections, mostly in Rivers and other southern states (BBC, 13/04/2015).
Between January and May 2015, 5,825 fatalities were reported in nearly 240 violent events involving BH (ACLED, 07/05/2015). As of 26 May, 27 suicide attacks had been recorded in 2015, compared to 26 in all of 2014 (UNICEF, 26/05/2015). Since 29 May, when President Buhari assumed office, more than 250 people have been killed in violence in the northeast (AFP, 28/06/2015). Boko Haram’s (BH) insurgency in the northeast began to gain momentum in 2014, when 7,711 deaths were reported (ACLED, 11/01/2015).
Since the end of 2014, the conflict with Boko Haram has taken on a more regional dimension, with attacks in Cameroon, Chad, and Niger, and a strengthened multinational force. In Nigeria, with the engagement of regional forces, the Nigerian Government regained territory in early 2015, but insurgent attacks have since begun to increase again in the northeast (UNHCR, 22/05/2015).
Inter-communal clashes fuelled by ethnic and religious tensions, as well as competition between farmers and pastoralists, flare regularly in the Middle Belt area (Benue, Kaduna, Plateau, Nassarawa, and Taraba states) (IDMC, 12/2014).
On 18 June, suspected Fulani herdsmen killed eight farmers in Wukari district of Taraba state (AFP, 18/06/2015). In May and April, at least 46 people were killed in Benue state by Fulani and in clashes between Ologba and Egba communities (AFP, 26/05/2015; 19/04/2015). In March, 118 people were killed attacks by suspected Fulani herdsmen, which also caused injuries and displacement (AFP, 17/03/2015; ECHO, 17/03/2015). In 2014, around 1,700 people died in inter-communal violence (ACLED, 2014; ICG, 01/10/2014).
Boko Haram (BH)
Boko Haram (“Western education is forbidden”) has been leading an insurgency to create an Islamic state in the predominantly Muslim regions of northeastern Nigeria. The Nigerian authorities have been fighting BH since 2009. Precise BH troop numbers are not known, but estimated at around 15,000 (Amnesty, 13/04/2015). In March, BH pledged allegiance to Islamic State (AFP, 07/03/2015).
Reports of low morale and defections persist among Nigerian forces. Failures to act on intelligence and abuse during the campaign against BH are also a problem, impacting relations with the civilian population (ACLED, 31/03/2015). In the past, Nigerian soldiers at times reportedly refused to deploy, or fled from operations (AFP, 22/08/2014).
The Multinational Joint Task Force (MJTF) has reached 8,700 military and civilian personnel, including contingents from Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria (BBC, 03/03/2015). About 2,500 Chadian troops withdrew from Nigeria mid-March, with indications they would be redeployed for fresh offensives elsewhere (AFP, 29/03/2015). The scope and remit of the regional force is unclear; failure to maintain control over liberated towns, such as Gamboru and Marte in Borno state in March and April, have also suggested coordination problems. It was decided on 11 June that the force be headed by a Nigerian commander (AFP, 11/06/2015; 25/04/2015; 20/03/2015).
The renewed military offensives of early 2015 and territorial gains by regional forces (36 towns recaptured in Borno) have prompted BH to revert to guerrilla tactics including village raids, abductions, bombings and suicide attacks, with civilians increasingly targeted (AFP, 23/03/2015; US Institute of Peace, 09/01/2015). BH has carried out mass killings and destruction before leaving villages (AFP, 17/03/2015). Between December 2014 and June 2015, OCHA reported 150 BH-related incidents and 3,473 fatalities (OCHA, 18/06/2015). Others reported 5,825 deaths in 240 incidents in 2015 as of early May (ACLED, 07/05/2015).
On 22 April, the military announced operations in Sambisa forest, thought to be BH’s last stronghold (Reuters, 22/04/2015). At the end of May, these operations were continuing, while BH militants are thought to be regrouping in Marte, in Borno state (UNHCR, 22/05/2015; AFP, 23/05/2015).
Borno state: On 28 June, at least five people were killed and ten wounded in a suicide bombing outside a leprosy hospital on the outskirts of Maiduguri. On 27 June, two suicide bombers died when the explosives detonated prematurely at a bus stop close to Maiduguri (AFP, 28/06/2015). On 22 and 23 June, BH militants killed 42 people in raids on the villages of Debiro Hawul and Debiro Bi, looting and burning houses (BBC, 24/06/2015; ECHO, 25/06/2015). In a separate suicide attack on 22 June, at least 20 died at a bus stop close to a market in Maiduguri (AFP, 24/06/2015). Earlier in June, at least 141 were killed and 83 injured in suspected and confirmed BH attacks in Monguno town, Maiduguri, Matangale, Buraltima, Dirmanti and Huyum villages (AFP, 17/06/2015; 12/06/2015; 11/06/2015; 09/06/2015; 07/06/2015; 04/06/2015; 02/06/2015). Over 24–30 May, at least 70 people were killed and 28 injured in a series of bombings and attacks in Maiduguri, Hawlul, and Gubio (AFP, 30/05/2015; 29/05/2015; 24/05/2015).
Adamawa state: A suspected BH attack on a market in Yola killed at least 31 and injured another 38 on 5 June (AFP, 05/06/2015). An explosion in Yola killed two and injured 30 on 4 June (AFP, 04/06/2015). End of May, several BH attacks on villages in Madagali district and Garkida village killed at least 21 people and injured 14, and seven women were abducted. BH had reportedly been pushed out of the state in March (AFP, 25/05/2015; 19/05/2015).
Yobe state: On 23 June, ten were killed and at least 30 injured in a suicide bombing at the market in Wajir, Gujba district (AFP, 24/06/2015). On 30 May, BH attacked Galda and Fik towns, and set fire to several buildings; communication infrastructure was also damaged. There are no accounts of casualties (AFP, 30/05/2015). Seven people were killed and 31 injured in a suicide attack in Damaturu on 16 May (AFP, 16/05/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Some 9.7 million people are staying in 34 areas worst affected by the insurgency, including IDPs. The entire population of northeast Nigeria – 24.5 million people – is indirectly affected; 4.6 million are in need of humanitarian aid (OCHA, 05/06/2015; 30/04/2015). The situation is compounded by limited international presence in the area.
Humanitarian assessments are severely challenged as security concerns are preventing access to some areas near Sambisa forest (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
In Borno state, most routes to affected areas are inaccessible, affecting food and basic services’ delivery from Yobe state in particular (ECHO, 13/01/2015). Many domestic flights have been cancelled and fuel stations are running out of petrol (BBC, 25/05/2015).
Movement in BH-controlled areas is reportedly restricted, and the use of vehicles is forbidden, most likely to prevent residents from leaving (IFRC, 23/01/2015). Media access has also often been prohibited, with BH having destroyed communication and media infrastructure (Reporters without Borders, 05/02/2015). Infrastructure damage reaches 80% in some areas controlled by BH (IRIN, 05/06/2015).
Health (0%), shelter and NFIs (0%), nutrition (10%), protection (14%), and WASH (13%) sectors remain poorly funded, severely constraining relief efforts (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
Close to 1.7 million Nigerians have been displaced by conflict, including nearly 1.5 million internally and 203,000 abroad. 57% of IDPs are children.
There are nearly 1.5 million IDPs in six northeastern states, largely due to the insurgency, compared to 1.2 million in February, and further displacement is ongoing. 64.5% of IDPs were displaced in 2014. 63% of IDPs are in Borno (939,290), followed by 15% in Adamawa (222,882), and 9% in Yobe (139,591). 57% are children; 28% of whom are under five. More than 1.1 million IDPs are living with host families, while the others live in 42 sites. Most basic needs are not covered, and IDPs are mainly relying on their own limited resources, charity of private individuals, and harmful coping mechanisms. Priorities include food security, protection, and livelihood support (IOM, 29/04/2015; UNICEF, 15/06/2015; INGO Forum, 19/06/2015; ECHO, 25/06/2015).
114,360 IDPs are residing in 16 sites in Borno state, including ten located in Maiduguri (12% of IDPs in the state). 63% of IDPs in Borno state are in Maiduguri (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
21,950 are living in 15 displacement sites in Adamawa state, mainly in Yola south and Girei (10%), while 6,300 are living in 10 sites in Taraba state (10%) (IOM, 29/04/2015).
Displacement sites are expected to be closed in the coming months, and IDPs relocated (IDMC, 16/04/2015).
Most IDPs are not yet returning home, citing a lack of security and livelihood opportunities. People are returning only to a limited extent in parts of Adamawa state. Many cannot return to their original homes, due to destruction of infrastructure and houses. Most returnees are women and children, as many men are held at checkpoints as suspected BH members (INGO Forum, 19/06/2015). Returnees in Adamawa state are in urgent need of shelter, food, health, and education. Concerns remain over mines, IEDs and UXOs in areas of return (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
Over 6–20 May, around 16,010 Nigerians arrived from islands on the Niger side of Lake Chad. They had been ordered to leave before planned military operations against BH (OCHA, 20/05/2015).
As of May, there are 2,190 refugees and asylum seekers in Nigeria (UNHCR, 27/05/2015).
Nigerian Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
Insecurity in Nigeria has displaced around 200,000 people to neighbouring countries so far. 74,000 are in Cameroon, 64,000 in Niger, and 14,900 in Chad (UN, 12/06/2015; 18/06/2015).
4.6 million people are estimated food insecure. A food security Emergency (IPC Phase 4) is expected in worst-affected areas in the northeast from July–September (OCHA, 05/06/2015; FEWSNET, 25/06/2015). Dry spells affecting southern Nigeria in April were expected to continue (FEWSNET, 24/04/2015).
3.5 million people are expected to be in need of food assistance in the northeast between July and September. Eastern Yobe, central and eastern Borno, northern Adamawa and IDP settlements are worst affected, with at least two million people expected to face Emergency food security outcomes (OCHA, 08/06/2015; FEWSNET, 25/06/2015). Markets remain significantly disrupted in the Lake Chad region, due to insecurity (FEWSNET, 31/05/2015).
Lack of access to IDPs for food distribution, mostly in urban areas, is a concern (FEWSNET, 20/05/2015). Lack of access to food has been reported in 12 out of 42 displacement sites, with Taraba state most affected (WFP/FAO, 04/06/2015).
Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity is expected for most households outside the northeast through at least September (FEWSNET, 11/05/2015).
Agriculture and Livelihoods
An estimated 80–85% of households have fled the worst-affected areas in the northeast, and those who remain are unable to carry out typical farming activities. Forecasts for the 2015 rainy season (May–September) are poor and the main harvest in October is expected to be well below average for a third consecutive year (FEWSNET, 25/06/2015).
Food prices are atypically high in Maiduguri, as food stocks within the host community are depleting rapidly. At least 350,000 farming households in Michika, Madagali, Hong, and Gombi in Adamawa state are in urgent need of agricultural support (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
Boko Haram enforces rigid movement restrictions and some limitations on trade, negatively impacting people’s ability to obtain food and gain a livelihood, and limiting food availability on markets (Amnesty, 13/04/2015; FEWSNET, 25/06/2015).
Health and Nutrition
3.5 million people need health support (OCHA, 05/06/2015). Emergency supplies need to be pre-positioned in IDP camps and host communities, especially in Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe states, as displacement continues (OCHA, 04/03/2015). Mortality rates are increasing and vaccination programmes severely hit, with polio vaccination campaigns limited to Maiduguri.
Urgent health and nutrition support is needed in the newly opened Dalori camp in Maiduguri (OCHA, 08/06/2015; UNICEF, 01/06/2015). 75 health facilities had been destroyed in Borno state as of May. Only 13 of the 27 local government areas have access to health care facilities (USAID, 17/06/2015).
Most IDPs in host communities have limited access to health services (OCHA, 02/10/2014). 3,000 health facilities in the northeast are closed or have been partially destroyed (OCHA, 08/10/2014).
By mid-May, 2,065 cholera cases have been reported in 2015 in 13 of the 16 states, with 99 deaths. Although the number of cases is significantly lower than the 20,667 over the same period in 2014, the case fatality rate has risen to 4.8%. The spread of cases makes it difficult to control the epidemic. In the week to 17 May, no new cases were reported, compared to 47 cases the previous week. Case numbers have been fluctuating between 0 and 60 per week since the peak of the outbreak in mid-March (IFRC, 09/06/2015; UNICEF, 22/06/2015).
1.5 million children and pregnant and lactating women are suffering from acute malnutrition, including 461,000 children suffering from SAM (OCHA, 05/06/2015; 04/03/2015). Around 100,000 children in camps are thought to be suffering from SAM (OCHA, 30/04/2015).
In the northeast, GAM is at 12.2% among children (OCHA, 08/06/2015). The nutritional situation of the displaced and host communities is rapidly deteriorating. As of March, 8.7% of children in Maiduguri and Jere, in Borno state, suffer from SAM, and 27.8% from MAM. (ECHO, 14/03/2015).
2.2 million people are in need of WASH assistance (OCHA, 05/06/2015).
WASH conditions in IDP host communities are critical, with reports of inadequate latrines and lack of access to safe water (IDMC, 16/04/2015). In the northeast, only 46% of the population have access to improved sources of drinking water and 21% to latrines (UNICEF, 13/01/2015).
Shelter and NFIs
One million people are in need of shelter and NFIs (OCHA, 05/06/2015). IDP sites are often overcrowded (IRIN, 05/06/2015). The number of IDPs in formal camps has been growing since April, and shelter and other basic needs have risen (OCHA, 08/06/2015). In 14 IDP sites, up to a quarter of IDPs are living outdoors. Shelter repair is a priority need in 36 IDP sites, while blankets are reported as the most needed NFI (IOM, 29/04/2015).
10.5 million children are out of school in Nigeria, including 60% in the northeast of the country (UNICEF, 04/2015). 300,000 children in Borno state have been unable to attend school for more than a year (USAID, 17/06/2015).
Low numbers of qualified teachers, scarcity of teaching materials, and fear of sending children to school are main concerns for IDP children’s access to education (UNICEF, 01/06/2015). As of April, schools in 19 of the 27 local government areas in Borno state were still not open, having been closed in March 2014 (UNICEF, 06/04/2015).
BH has repeatedly targeted schools and other educational institutions. More than 300 schools have been severely damaged or destroyed, and at least 196 teachers and 314 school children were killed between January 2012 and December 2014 (UNICEF, 13/04/2015).
2.2 million people are in need of protection assistance; women are at particular risk of sexual violence and trafficking in displacement sites; unaccompanied minors are also among the most vulnerable (OCHA, 05/06/2015; IDMC, 16/04/2015; UNICEF, 13/04/2015). IDP camps are facing a significant threat from militant infiltration; some cases of BH militants disguised as IDPs have been reported from Maiduguri (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
As parents fear sending girls to school due to insecurity, advocacy groups have raised concerns over increased rates of child marriage (Thomson Reuters Foundation, 20/05/2015).
Islamic scholars and clerics are often among the first targets during BH raids on towns and villages, as they are considered unbelievers (Amnesty, 13/04/2015). Indiscriminate killings by the group have also been reported once villages are recaptured (Amnesty, 13/04/2015).
Amnesty has raised concerns about the tactics used by security forces in the offensive against BH. More than 8,000 people are said to have died in detention in June (Reuters, 23/06/2015).
Abduction, Torture, and Forced Recruitment
Kidnappings of groups of women and girls by BH continue. More than 2,000 women and girls have reportedly been abducted by the group since January (AFP, 30/04/2015; BBC, 14/04/2015). Around 1,000 women and children rescued from BH over 28 April–4 May have been taken to Yola camp for rehabilitation; a further 20 were rescued on 23 May (local media, 05/05/2015; AFP, 23/05/2015; 03/05/2015).
Women and girls have been trafficked, raped, abducted and forcibly married in areas controlled by BH (OCHA, 30/04/2015). Young men are also being forcibly recruited and executed (Amnesty, 13/04/2015). The increasing use of children and women for suicide bombings is of great concern, and the trend is likely to continue (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Cases of extrajudicial killings, arbitrary arrests, detention, and torture have been documented among Nigerian forces in the course of security operations against BH (Amnesty International, 03/06/2015).
Sierra Leone Country Analysis
21 June: In the week to 21 June, eight Ebola cases were confirmed in Port Loko, Kambia, and Freetown (WHO, 24/06/2015).
- As of 24 June, Sierra Leone has reported 13,093 cumulative Ebola cases, including 3,931 deaths (WHO, 26/06/2015).
- The cumulative number of reported Ebola cases across the region has reached 27,479, including 11,217 deaths (WHO, 26/06/2015). The numbers of registered cases and deaths are largely inaccurate.
- 1.1 million are projected to be facing Crisis (Phase 3) food security outcomes and 1.69 million Stressed (Phase 2) by the June–August lean season (Cadre Harmonisé, 01/03/2015).
The state of emergency has been extended for 90 days, despite calls from opposition to ease restrictions (international media, 12/06/2015).
There are concerns that the state of emergency measures are being used by the ruling party against its opposition. Police have been accused of using excessive force, protests have been banned, journalists have been arrested for criticising the response, and political figures have been arrested (local media, 26/04/2015; Amnesty International, 04/05/2015).
Resistance to Ebola Response
Resistance to the Ebola response is still being reported in chiefdoms of Kambia and the Urban Western Area, including people not seeking treatment (UN, 08/05/2015). The town of Barmoi and the surrounding chiefdom has seen an influx of soldiers and the closure of markets, reportedly in response to resistance to containment measures (Doctors of the World, 03/05/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
All response activities are restricted by poor terrain and a lack of transport (Doctors of the World, 04/05/2015).
The number of food people insecure is projected to increase to 1.1 million in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and 1.69 million in Stressed (IPC Phase 2) in the June–August lean season (Cadre Harmonisé, 01/03/2015). Those facing Crisis food insecurity include poor households in the areas where disruptions to agricultural production and market activities have been most severe, including Kailahun, Kenema, Kono, Tonkolili, Bombali and Port Loko districts (FEWSNET, 01/06/2015).
In a more recent simulation, 747,000 people were estimated to be food insecure at the end of June, with this number predicted to increase to a peak of 1.6 million in the lean season (June–August). This is based on a Shock Impact Simulation Model, assuming that national food production has seen a modest decrease in 2014/2015, household incomes have decreased, and food prices will continue to increase, particularly in the lean season. People in rural areas are expected to be more vulnerable: more than 30% of the rural population are forecast to be food insecure during the lean season (WFP, 23/06/2015).
In most areas, food stocks have depleted one to two months earlier than normal (BRAC, 21/05/2015; FEWSNET, 01/06/2015). Kambia and Port Loko reported the highest levels of negative coping strategies. Rural households use more, and more severe, coping strategies than urban households (WFP, 28/05/2015). The majority of households reports a decrease in frequency of meals, and smaller meals (BRAC, 21/05/2015).
Survivors, quarantined households, people with chronic illness, and people from poor and very poor households are most affected by food insecurity. Unmet food needs are higher in areas with high Ebola exposure (78%) than low exposure (54%) (ACAPS, 04/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
46% of people surveyed reported that the most important market in their area was closed or operating at reduced levels in early May, similar to December 2014. 28% of traders reported that agricultural activities continue at below-average levels (FEWSNET, 01/06/2015).
Typical livelihood activities remain below average. 53% of traders surveyed said there had been fewer agricultural labour opportunities than in a normal year, particularly in Bombali, Kono, and Rural Western Area (FEWSNET, 01/06/2015).
An assessment in five districts indicated decreased household incomes and more unemployment were among the main effects of the Ebola outbreak, in households with and without members being infected. More than 80% of respondents reported a decreased income compared to before the outbreak (BRAC, 21/05/2015).
Though the economy is not fully recovered, employment levels are returning to levels seen in the July–August 2014 Labour Force Survey. New rice planting activities have not been disrupted, but people’s working hours are still below baseline (World Bank, 15/06/2015).
Health and Nutrition
Health infrastructure is very fragile and unresponsive. During the Ebola outbreak, many health facilities were temporarily closed and people were reluctant to seek health care due to fear of infection. As a result of the Ebola outbreak, no mass immunisation activities have been taking place, and thousands children have not been vaccinated. The risk of massive preventable outbreaks remains, as pockets of disease are already reported (Government, 08/06/2015). It is likely there has been an increase in morbidity and mortality of other diseases, including malaria, diarrhoea, TB, and HIV.
As of 24 June, 13,093 cumulative Ebola cases have been reported in Sierra Leone, including 3,931 deaths (WHO, 26/06/2015). The decline in case incidence and the contraction of the geographic area affected by Ebola transmission throughout April and early May has stalled (WHO, 10/06/2015).
In the week to 21 June, eight confirmed Ebola cases were reported from three districts, compared to 14 the week before. Four cases were reported in Port Loko. One of the cases arose from an unknown source of infection. Two cases were from Kambia district. Both were registered contacts in quarantined homes. Two other cases were reported from Freetown, one of whom had an epidemiological link to a previous case (WHO, 24/06/2015).
Nine of 14 districts have been declared Ebola-free, having gone 42 days without reporting any new cases (WHO, 27/05/2015).
305 health workers have been infected. 221 have died of Ebola; approximately one in ten of the country’s health workers. In the week to 21 June, the first health worker infection since 14 May was confirmed (WHO, 24/06/2015).
Containment measures: 31 health staff have been quarantined in Freetown after a patient who gave birth in a health facility tested positive for Ebola (AFP, 25/06/2015). In Kambia and Port Loko districts, a curfew has been decreed and movement restrictions implemented in chiefdoms that continue to report Ebola cases. Military and police are in charge of enforcement. Restrictions on trading have been eased (UNMEER, 12/06/2015). Following the spike in new recorded cases, MSF called for more engagement with the community, to avoid repeating earlier mistakes in the fight against Ebola (MSF, 14/06/2015).
Porous borders between Sierra Leone and Guinea are posing a challenge to surveillance (UNMEER, 15/04/2015). Officials from both countries have agreed to share information and established screening protocols at border points between areas of active Ebola transmission (UNMEER, 07/04/2015; 15/04/2015).
The cumulative number of reported Ebola cases across the region has reached 27,479, including 11,217 deaths (WHO, 26/06/2015).
Delivery of maternal health services has improved: the percentage of households reporting that a member gave birth in a clinic increased to 89% in May, compared to 64% in January–February, and 28% in November (World Bank, 15/06/2015).
Paediatric malaria admissions decreased by 80% in Moyamba; this is likely to have led to greater under-five mortality (Doctors of the World, 03/05/2015).
It is predicted that, compared to observed trends from 1992 to 2012, the number of people who are undernourished during 2014–2016 could increase by 1.30–1.39%. This increase has been linked to the Ebola outbreak (UNDG, 11/03/2015). A UNICEF assessment in 60 of 150 chiefdoms identified 273 (1.27%) children with SAM (UNICEF, 25/03/2015).
According to a UNICEF survey, about 14% of primary health units have no access to water. This is most widely experienced in Tonkolili, Pujehun, and Kambia districts, where 35%, 27%, and 26% of primary health units lack water access, respectively (UNICEF, 04/2015). Furthermore, 54% of all schools do not have access to water year-round (UNICEF, 11/03/2015).
About a third of the population live without latrines (UNMEER, 20/11/2014).
The majority of school-aged children have returned to school. 87% of households reported all children were attending school in May. Of those who were not attending, less than 2% cited the school was still closed or was unsafe due to Ebola (World Bank, 15/06/2015). In another survey, 46% of households who reported not sending a child to school cited inability to afford school as the main reason (BRAC, 21/05/2015).
Discrimination and stigmatisation of Ebola survivors was still widely reported in March (UNMEER, 29/03/2015). 47% of people surveyed indicated that stigma and discrimination exist in their communities: social and family exclusion were the main issues. Fear of Ebola was cited as the main reason for discrimination and stigma (ACAPS, 02/04/2015).
There have been allegations of beatings by police during the Ebola outbreak (Voice of America, 22/06/2015).
According to UNICEF, as of 29 April, 8,619 children have lost one or both parents to Ebola and 742 are unaccompanied or separated from their caregiver (UNICEF, 29/04/2015). Other sources reported as many as 12,023 registered orphans, with Port Loko the most affected district (Street Child, 02/2015).
More than 2,000 cases of sexual abuse against children were recorded in 2014 – a record high. Many more cases have likely gone unreported (Ebola Deeply, 14/03/2015).
Due to limited household resources, children are predisposed and sometimes forced to engage in income-generating activities. There are reports of girls turning to sex work for income. Orphans are considered particularly vulnerable (The Guardian, 28/04/2015). Visibly pregnant girls were not allowed to return to school, according to an announcement by the Ministry of Education (Ebola Deeply, 14/03/2015; Voice of America, 13/04/2015).
Somalia Country Analysis
26 June: 30 people were killed in an Al Shabaab attack on an AMISOM base in Leego, between Mogadishu and Baidoa (BBC).
24 June: 12 people were killed in a suicide attack in Mogadishu, claimed by Al Shabaab (BBC).
June: Critical acute malnutrition levels (over 15% GAM) are reported among IDP sites in Baidoa, Dhobley, Garowe, Galkayo and Dolow. The situation has significantly deteriorated since end 2014, and exceeds the emergency threshold in the majority of assessed IDP sites (FSNAU, 19/06/2015).
- Widespread violence and insecurity, particularly in south-central Somalia.
- Insecurity and bureaucratic impediments continue to hinder humanitarian access.
- 1.1 million IDPs, mainly in the south-central region, with high concentrations in Mogadishu (UNHCR, 12/2014).
- 2.75 million people need safe water (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
- 3 million are estimated to need emergency health services (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
- Nearly one million people are at Crisis and Emergency levels of food insecurity (UNICEF, 30/04/2015).
- Some 203,000 children under five are estimated to be acutely malnourished, mainly in south-central Somalia, including 38,200 severely (OCHA, 02/06/2015; 19/02/2015).
- 1.7 million children are out of school (OCHA, 12/03/2015).
- More than one million Somali refugees live in neighbouring countries, mostly Kenya, Ethiopia, and Yemen (UNHCR, 12/2014).
Protracted conflict, consecutive years of drought, natural hazards, and disruption of basic infrastructure have led to large-scale displacement in Somalia and across the region. Almost half the population of Somalia, around 3.2 million people, is vulnerable to external shocks and lacking access to basic goods and services, with an estimated 1.5 million people living in seven regions affected by the Somalia–African Union military offensive: Bakool, Gedo, Lower Shabelle, Hiraan, Bay, Banadir, and Lower Juba.
Somalia suffers from a chronic fragility of state institutions as a result of two decades of civil war. Infighting between presidents and prime ministers is a recurrent problem. Vision 2016, the Federal Government’s policy covering constitutional revision, the establishment of regional administrations, and transition to multiparty democracy, is opposed by key figures in the state (UNSC, 25/09/2014; ICG, 01/11/2014).
Security incidents such as suicide attacks, mine explosions, and armed confrontations continue in southern regions. Most incidents between January and May 2015 were reported in Mogadishu, Baidoa, Beletweyne and Kismayo (FSNAU, 26/06/2015). Armed actors conducted more than 340 violent incidents targeting civilians and humanitarian personnel between 1 March and 20 April (USAID, 19/05/2015).
Al Shabaab continues attacks on civilians, humanitarian personnel, and government officials. Al Shabaab is expected to increase its number of attacks during the month of Ramadan (BBC, 26/06/2015). On 26 June, an AMISOM military base in Leego, along the road from Mogadisu to Baidoa, was attacked. 30 people were reportedly killed (BBC, 26/06/2015). On 12 June, Al Shabaab claimed an attack on AMISOM soldiers in Bay region. 30 soldiers were reported killed, however these numbers remain unverified. The military claims to have repelled the attack (Reuters; local media, 12/06/2015).
Mogadishu: Al Shabaab attacks in Mogadishu mainly target political figures. 76 people were killed in the first three months of 2015 (local media, 19/01/0215; 16/02/2015; AFP, 22/01/2015; 16/02/2015; 28/03/2015; 18/04/2015; 21/04/2015; PI, 22/01/2015; BBC, 09/02/2015; 28/03/2015; 14/04/2015; Reuters 11/03/2015). On 24 June, a suicide attack targeted the United Arab Emirates ambassador. At least 12 people were killed (BBC, 24/06/2015). On 21 June, a car bomber attacked a training centre for the national intelligence agency. At least three militants died. Al Shabaab claims several intelligence officers were killed, though the Government denies this (international media, 21/06/2015). The same day, militants raided a police station in Agoye, on the outskirts of Mogadishu, killing eight officers and three civilians (international media, 21/06/2015).
Al Shabaab is a militant Islamist group and off-shoot of the Islamic Courts Union. It took over most of southern Somalia in 2006, seeking to establish an Islamic state. Numbering 7,000–9,000 militants, Al Shabaab typically targets Somali government officials, AMISOM forces, and perceived government allies. Attacks in urban centres and along transport axes are common. Al Shabaab has also carried out a number of attacks in Kenya. Al Shabaab was forced out of Mogadishu in 2011 and Kismayo in 2012, and lost Barawe, Lower Shabelle, in October 2014.
In November 2013, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) force was increased to 22,000 from 17,600. Its mandate has been extended until 30 November 2015 (UNSC, 25/09/2014). The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) and AMISOM launched a military offensive against Al Shabaab-held areas in March 2014 (OCHA, 05/2014). The second phase of the offensive began in late August. Bakool, Gedo, Lower Shabelle, Hiraan, Bay, Banadir, and Lower Juba regions are all affected. Offensives are planned in regions such as Jilib, Buale and Sakow in Middle Juba, Bardhere in Gedo, Dinsor in Bay, and Sablaale in Lower Shabelle (FSNAU, 03/2015).
Over 2,200 conflict incidents with humanitarian impact were reported in the first nine months of 2014, including military operations, active hostilities, and other forms of violence against civilians (OCHA, 17/10/2014).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Restricted humanitarian access continues to affect aid delivery to affected populations in south-central Somalia (OCHA, 02/06/2015). Insecurity on the main roads makes needs assessment, delivery of humanitarian supplies, and response difficult (OCHA, 21/11/2014). Even in areas where there has been no active conflict, illegal checkpoints, banditry, and demands for bribes are common (OCHA, 17/10/2014).
Al Shabaab has cut off road access to towns controlled by AMISOM, including Rabhure and Wajid in Bakool (FEWSNET, 16/04/2015). Bulo Burde in Hiraan is only accessible by helicopter; Belet Weyne–Mogadishu and Mogadishu–Baidoa–Dolow are most affected. The Puntland–Somaliland border is closed (OCHA, 24/04/2015; Logistics Cluster, 29/04/2015; OCHA, 12/05/2015).
The indefinite closure of Bosaso Airport, Puntland, for renovation, has severely constrained humanitarian operations (PI, 08/01/2015).
Security Incidents Involving Aid Workers
Over 40 security incidents involving aid workers took place in the first four months of 2015: eight people were killed, 14 injured, seven abducted and 20 arrested or detained (OCHA, 24/04/2015). A 400-strong UN military unit was deployed in Mogadishu with a mandate to protect aid workers in May 2014 (UN).
Floods damaged about 6,600 hectares of crops and displaced around 16,500 people in south-central Somalia in April–May: 8,250 people in Jowhar–Mahaday, 3,900 in Sablaale, 2,700 in Galkayo, 1,530 in Wanla Weyne and 120 in Buur Hakaba (OCHA, 12/05/2015). River levels continued to fall in upstream areas along the Juba and Shabelle river basins. The risk of flooding is minimal along the lower Shabelle. No flood risk is foreseen along the Juba (FAO, 02/06/2015).
An estimated 1.1 million Somalis were IDPs by February 2015, 893,000 in the south-central region, 129,000 in Puntland, and 84,000 in Somaliland. 369,000 IDPs live in makeshift camps in Mogadishu (UNHCR, 06/05/2015). Figures showed little to no change over 2014, when some 80,000 were displaced due to the SNAF-AMISOM offensive (OCHA, 04/12/2014).
The Tripartite Agreement between the Kenyan and Somali Governments and UNHCR, signed in November 2013, establishes a legal framework for those Somali refugees wishing to return home (UNHCR 15/08/2014). 3,000 refugees have registered to return, compared to the original target of 10,000 (UNHCR, 08/12/2014). Following temporary suspension because rains had made roads impassable, voluntary repatriation resumed on 9 June (local media, 21/06/2015). Between 8 December and 28 June, 2,509 Somalis returned from Kenya; 195 returned 22–28 June. 1,836 have returned to Kismayo, 625 to Baidoa, and 48 to Luuq (UNHCR, 28/06/2015).
Somali refugees in Kenya cite insecurity and lack of earning opportunities as their main uncertainties regarding return to Somalia (UNHCR, East African, 02/08/2014; UNHCR, 11/08/2014).
Refugees and Returnees from Yemen
The number of new arrivals from Yemen has increased significantly. Over 11–18 June, 2,860 individuals arrived in Puntland and Somaliland, bringing the total to 17,384 arrivals since March (IOM, 18/06/2015). Camps are overcrowded and there is not enough capacity to meet needs (local media, 24/05/2015; 13/05/2015; 08/06/2015). 90% of arrivals are Somali returnees (IOM, 18/06/2015). The number of returnees arriving is likely to rise as some organisations are planning to facilitate travel for those who cannot afford it (Oxfam, 17/06/2015).
Somali Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
972,020 Somalis are refugees in neighbouring countries: at least 421,789 in Kenya, 246,975 in Ethiopia, and 244,204 in Yemen, with the remainder in Uganda, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Tanzania. 3,107 new Somali refugees were registered in 2015 (UNHCR, 08/06/2015; 31/05/2015; 06/05/2015).
The food security situation has deteriorated since January, with nearly one million people in Crisis and Emergency (IPC Phase 3 and 4) food insecurity as of May; an increase from earlier projections of 730,000 people (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). An additional 2.3 million people are classified as Stressed (IPC Phase 2) and highly vulnerable to shocks (OCHA, 02/06/2015; 10/03/2015).
People in IDP sites are facing Crisis and Emergency food insecurity. In parts of Hiraan and Bakool that are affected by roadblocks and conflict, most households will face Emergency food insecurity through September 2015, and the situation is likely to persist in the following months (Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 22/05/2015; USAID, 19/05/2015; FSNAU, 26/06/2015).
Households in northwest agropastoral zones will have to reduce food consumption between July and the next karan harvest in October due to poor crop yields. Pasture and water shortages are likely in parts of Bari, Sanag and Awdal regions in the north, and in Gedo and Galgaduud in south-central Somalia due to rain deficits (FEWSNET, 16/06/2015; 28/05/2015; Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 22/05/2015; FSNAU, 26/06/2015).
From July–December, a deterioration in food security is projected in parts of agricultural livelihood areas of Somalia, particularly in the southern areas of Bay, Bakool, Hiraan, Middle Juba and Middle Shabelle, where reduced crop yields are expected. In livestock-dependent livelihood areas, improvement in food security is likely due to favourable livestock prices, increased milk availability, and increased livestock herd size. However, in the areas that experienced rain deficits during the gu rains, livestock conditions may be worse during the dry hagaa season until October (FSNAU, 26/06/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
Though gu rains improved pasture and water availability in south-central Somalia, an early end to the gu rains in May instead of June is likely to result in below-average crop yields in most of the south, including Bay, Bakool, Hiraan, Middle Juba, and Middle Shabelle. In northwest agropastoral zones the remaining gu maize crop is no longer developing (FEWSNET, 16/06/2015; 28/05/2015; Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 22/05/2015). However, losses will be partially offset by off-season harvest expected in September in Middle Shabelle and riverine areas of Juba and Gedo (FSNAU, 26/06/2015).
Prices of food commodities remain high in urban areas of Bakool and Hiraan regions due to trade blockades throughout the past year (FSNAU, 26/06/2015).
The Kenyan President has ordered the Central Bank of Kenya to lift restrictions on 13 money remittance providers to Somalia. Services had been suspended in an effort to curb the financing of terrorism. An estimated 40% of Somalia’s population rely on remittances to meet basic needs, including water, healthcare, and education (AFP, 18/06/2015; 08/04/2015; Adeso, 10/04/2015; UNICEF, 30/04/2015). In early February, a number of banks in the US, UK, and Australia also broke ties with money transfer operators in Somalia (Inter Press, 06/02/2015).
60% of IDPs in Galkayo town report inadequate access to markets (multiple, 31/05/2015).
Health and Nutrition
Around 3 million people are in need of emergency health services, particularly in Bay, Bakool, Galgaduud, Middle Juba and parts of Gedo (OCHA, 02/06/2015). As of November, 300,000 children under five are without access to primary health services and free immunisation (UNICEF, 31/10/2014).
All IDP sites in south-central Somalia had a serious under-five mortality rate May–June (1–1.9/10,000/day). Levels were acceptable (<1/10,000/day) in IDP sites in the northeast and northwest (FSNAU, 06/2015).
The situation in Dhobley is considered a humanitarian crisis, with critical death rates (1.47/10,000/day), mainly due to acute malnutrition (FSNAU, 06/2015). The number of acute watery diarrhoea and suspected cholera cases increased rapidly in late April in Dhobley, in Lower Juba. As of 17 May, 129 people have been admitted to hospital and five have died (IOM, 19/05/2015).
Between January and March, central regions reported 691 measles cases, 1,094 malaria cases, and 692 cases of acute watery diarrhoea (WHO, 17/05/2015).
An estimated 1.3 million people are in need of nutritional support (OCHA, 02/06/2015). 26% of nutrition actors have had to stop their activities this year due to limited funding, which could lead to an increase in levels of malnutrition (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
The situation is critical (over 15% GAM and increasing) among Riverine livelihoods in Gedo and Shabelle regions, in urban districts Belet Weyne and Bulo Burde in Hiraan region, as well as in urban Burao in Togdheer region and in Banadir region, which have shown a deteriorating trend in the first quarter of 2015 (FSNAU, 29/04/2015, UNICEF, 28/05/2015). In Bulo Burde, GAM is 25% and SAM 19%, according to a June nutrition assessment, which is still at critical levels, but shows some improvement from the 33–35% GAM recorded in April and May (FSNAU, 06/2015). Health facilities in central zones of Hawd, Addun and Coastal Deeh show sustained critical malnutrition levels. East Golis, Sool and Kakaar in the northeast show a deterioration. An unexpected increase in malnutrition (over 15% GAM) was reported from health facilities in urban areas of Burao district in Somaliland (UNICEF, 28/05/2015).
Further deterioration is expected in hotspots for acute malnutrition in Bay agropastoral livelihood zone, in Gedo region, Belet Weyne district in Hiraan, and Hawd and Coastal Deeh livelihood zones (Food Security and Nutrition Working Group, 22/05/2015; UNICEF, 28/05/2015).
IDPs: A May–June nutrition assessment found a significant deterioration among IDPs in Kismayo and Dhobley in south-central Somalia. Five sites have critical levels of acute malnutrition (>15% GAM): Baidoa, Dhobley, Garowe, Galkayo and Dolow. In the last three sites, acute malnutrition has been above the critical threshold over the past two years. Among Dhobley IDPs, GAM has nearly doubled since the last assessment (October–December 2014), from 11% to 20.7%. SAM levels are above 4% in Baidoa, Galkayo, and Dolow.
Serious malnutrition levels (10%–15% GAM) were reported among IDPs in Mogadishu, Qardho, Bossaso, Kismayo, Dhusamreeb and Hargeisa. Alert levels (5%–10% GAM) were only seen in the northwest, in Berbera and Burao (FSNAU, 06/2015).
937,000 people are estimated in need of shelter, due to displacement after flooding in south-central Somalia and evictions of displaced communities in Banadir, Kismayo, and other urban areas (OCHA, 02/06/2015).
IDPs in Mogadishu are living in makeshift shelters. The most pressing needs are in Aladala, Aslubta, Beelo and Maslac in Dayniile district, and Ikashi in Hodan (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
2.75 million people need safe water, particularly those in displacement sites and in areas affected by flooding, and acute watery diarrhoea or cholera (OCHA, 27/03/2015; 02/06/2015).
1.7 million children are out of school in south-central Somalia. Children of displaced families remain the most vulnerable and neglected in access to education (OCHA, 12/03/2015; 02/06/2015).
1.11 million people are considered in need of protection, mainly due to physical insecurity during the SNAF-AMISOM offensive and inter-clan fighting; SGBV, including cases of sexual violence during inter-clan conflict; child protection violations; killing of civilians (including children); separation of children; and forced/secondary eviction. The areas most affected are Middle and Lower Shabelle and Lower Juba (UNHCR Protection Cluster, 10/2014; OCHA, 02/06/2015).
2015 has seen a surge in forced evictions of IDPs, which remain a critical concern, particularly in urban areas. In the first three months of 2015, 40,000 people were reportedly evicted from Mogadishu (OCHA, 02/06/2015; NRC, 18/05/2015). The majority fled to settlements in the outskirts of the city. An assessment found more than half in need of access to shelter, 80% in need of access to safe water and latrines, 70% lacked access to food, and 60% are in need of health services in the new locations (Food Security Cluster, 23/03/2015). Human Rights Watch reported that authorities beat some of those evicted, destroyed their shelter, and left them without food, water, or assistance (HRW, 20/04/2015). Forced evictions have also been reported in Kismayo, Bosaso, and Luuq (UNHCR, 28/02/2015; ECHO, 25/03/2015; NRC, 18/05/2015).
In September 2014, a Human Rights Watch report stated that AU forces have been raping and sexually exploiting women and girls in their bases in Mogadishu, sometimes using humanitarian assistance to coerce them into sexual activities (HRW, 08/09/2014).
In Tayeeglow, Lower Shabelle, an estimated 115 children have been abducted by Al Shabaab, 80 of whom are still held (OCHA, 21/11/2014). 4,314 cases of child exploitation and abuse were reported January–November 2014 (OCHA, 30/11/2014).
More than 1,000 grave child rights violations were recorded January–April 2015. Grave violations include recruitment or use of children, killing, maiming, rape or other sexual violence (UNICEF). Boys are more affected than girls. 291 cases of child recruitment into armed groups and the national army were reported and 75 cases of sexual violence against children, compared to 370 and 30, respectively, reported during the same period in 2014 (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
3,800 children have been identified as separated or unaccompanied since January 2015, compared to 708 in the same period in 2014. More than half are yet to be reunited or placed in interim care. Most children are from south-central Somalia.
South Sudan Country Analysis
30 June: UNMISS accused SPLA troops of abducting at least 172 women and girls and raping an additional 79 during their April–May campaign in Unity state (Al Jazeera, 30/06/2015; Radio Tamazuj 30/06/2015; Dabanga, 30/06/2015).
28 June: Heavy fighting around Malakal continues to restrict humanitarian access, and 3,932 new IDPs have arrived at the Protection of Civilians site (IOM, 25/06/2015).
24 June: Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food insecurity outcomes are suspected in certain areas of Unity and Upper Nile states, such as Ayod and Mayendit (FEWSNET, 24/06/2015).
24 June: 5–8% of citizens are in severe acute malnutrition (FEWSNET, 24/06/2015).
- Frequent fighting between government and opposition forces continues in Unity, Jonglei, and Upper Nile states.
- 6.4 million people in need of humanitarian assistance in 2015; 4.6 million people to be assisted by the end of 2015 (OCHA, 08/01/2015; UN, 12/06/2015).
- An estimated 3.6 million are predicted to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and a further 1 million in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity by the end of July (IPC, 27/05/2015).
- An estimated 250,000 children are severely malnourished (OCHA, 13/06/2015).
- 1,555,059 million IDPs since December 2013. 120,000–145,400 IDPs are sheltering in six sites on UNMISS bases (UNHCR, 08/05/2015; UNMISS, 13/04/2014).
- 260,000 refugees in South Sudan (mainly from Sudan, DRC, Ethiopia, and CAR).
- 525,000 South Sudanese refugees since December 2013 (UNHCR 04/2015).
Jonglei, Upper Nile, and Unity are priority states, and the priority sectors are food security and livelihoods, health, NFIs and shelter, nutrition, and WASH. Insecurity is hampering the delivery of assistance. The UN reports widespread violation of human rights and targeted violence against civilians.
Violence has spread across eastern South Sudan since December 2013. Fighting is most intense in the oil-rich northeastern states. Strife has progressively adopted the characteristics of an inter-communal conflict between the Dinka tribe allied to South Sudan President Kiir and government forces, and the Nuer, loosely allied with former South Sudan Vice President Riek Machar.
Relations between Sudan and South Sudan have been poor since South Sudan gained independence in 2011. The violence in South Sudan since December 2013 has exacerbated tensions, with additional concerns in Khartoum regarding an influx of refugees and arms, as well as disruption of oil flow. Sudan has accused South Sudan of using Sudanese militia groups to fight insurgents. South Sudan has made similar accusations.
Since violence broke out in December 2013, President Kiir’s government forces (SPLA), who are predominantly Dinka and backed by Ugandan troops, are pitted against a loose alliance of military defectors loyal to former Vice President Riek Machar (SPLM-in-Opposition, or SPLM-IO), along with ethnic Nuer militia forces. Since the beginning of the conflict there have been several splinter groups forming after leaving the SPLM-IO. Despite a significant reduction in intensity from January 2014, violence persists.
The UN Security Council adopted a resolution setting out criteria for targeted sanctions on individuals or entities threatening security and stability in South Sudan in early March (UN, 03/03/2015). Peace negotiations began again on 8 June (local media, 10/06/2015; international media, 15/06/2015). They have yet to produce any results, as of 29 June. At least seven ceasefires have been signed and broken since the civil war started in December 2013 (The Daily Star, 29/06/2015).
On 24 March, the South Sudanese Parliament voted to extend President Kiir’s term by three years, cancelling elections scheduled for June 2015 (AFP, 24/03/2015).
On 29 May, the Government expelled the UN resident coordinator; no reason was given (The Guardian, 01/06/2015).
Oil production is at one-third of its level in 2011. The central bank of South Sudan is allegedly printing money to meet a budget shortfall (Al Jazeera, 27/06/2015). Although the official Bank of South Sudan exchange rate remains pegged at 3.1 South Sudanese Pounds (SSP) to 1 US Dollar (USD), the informal exchange rate reached 8.5 SSP for 1 USD in mid-April (FEWSNET, 18/04/2015). The SSP depreciated by approximately 26% from December 2014 to March 2015. Fuel and food prices confine to increase dramatically (FEWSNET 24/06/2015).
Most violence is occurring in the oil-rich northeastern states of Unity, Upper Nile, and Jonglei. Clashes have intensified since January, with a significant escalation since March.
As of early June, two months of fighting in Unity and Upper Nile have led to significant displacement and access challenges (UNHCR, 02/06/2015). Between 25 May and 12 June, at least 466 civilians have been killed, and 1,294 have been injured (WHO, 12/06/2015). At least 50,000 may have died since December 2013, although access restrictions make numbers hard to verify (International Crisis Group, 15/11/2014).
International Military Presence
The UN Security Council voted in December 2013 to increase the number of peacekeepers in the country from 10,000 to 12,500. As of 28 February 2015, there were 11,669 uniformed personnel. The UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) current mandate expires on 30 November 2015.
Border Tensions with Sudan
On 8 April, the South Sudanese government accused Sudan of carrying out air raids against villages near the border in Western Bahr el Ghazal and Northern Bahr el Ghazal states. Four civilians were killed and nine injured, according to local media reports (local media, 9/04/2015; 10/04/2015). Reports of cross-border raids are not uncommon.
Clashes between the Government and SPLM-in-Opposition
Violence is reported to have intensified from April–May during an SPLA campaign to recapture territory. Burning, looting, and rape, are being reported in Rubkona, Mayom, Guit, Koch, and Mayendit counties as of mid-May (international media, 15/05/2015). A UNMISS report released on 30 June accused SPLA troops of targeting civilians. At least 67 civilians have been reported killed and over 250 girls subject to sexual violence (Al Jazeera, 30/06/2015; Radio Tamazuj 30/06/2015; Radio Dabanga, 30/06/2015). On 29 June, an armed force allied to fomer vice president Riek Machar, claimed they had regained control of Leer county from goverment forces (Sudan Tribune, 29/06/2015). There are unconfirmed reports of armed men illegally entering Bentiu Protection of Civilians (PoC) (UNHCR, 29/05/2015). Heavy fighting has been reported in Bentiu and Rubkona since the end of the rainy season in late October (AFP, 10/11/2014; Reuters, 04/01/2014; OCHA, 12/02/2015). On 15 April, government officials temporarily transferred the capital of Unity state from Bentiu to Mankien, Mayom county, due to insecurity (UNMISS, 15/04/2015). The heavy fighting around Leer, which began in April, has begun to subside (ICRC, 25/05/2015).
On 28 June, SPLA-IO forces took Malakal (Sudan Tribune, 28/06/2015). Malakal is strategic for control of South Sudan’s oil revenue. The most recent heavy fighting started 22 April. Control of the town has shifted repeatedly. Separate skirmishes were reported on 23 April in Gelachel, a town between Malakal and Nasir (local media, 22/04/2015; 23/04/2015). On 19 May, two mortar bombs landed in Melut PoC, killing eight (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
In March, heavy fighting, including heavy shelling, between government and opposition forces was reported in Duk Duk, Renk county, and Manyo county (OCHA, 06/03/2015; local media, 09/03/2015).
On 22 June, five IDPs from Juba PoC were shot during an incident in the marketplace next to the PoC (UN, 22/06/2015). One person was killed and around 60 injured in inter-communal clashes within the PoC site in May. Local media report 3,500 IDPs left the PoC (local media, 13/05/2015; 11/05/2015).
Inter-communal violence has been reported in counties across Lakes state since September 2014. Attacks on traders and travellers are frequent (local media, 15/06/2015. On 5 June, armed pastoralists, not reported to be associated with any major armed group, clashed with security personal (local media, 05/06/2015).
On 20 May, in Melut PoC, a grenade went off, injuring five (UNHCR, 22/05/2015).
At least 18 people were killed in clashes between clans of Gogrial East county and Gogrial West county over 14–29 May (local media, 29/05/2015).
Sporadic but continuous clashes between tribal and clan groups continue, particularly around Maridi. At least 11 deaths have been recorded so far in June (UNHCR, 22/06/2015; local media, 18/06/2015). On 23 May, armed violence was reported in Mundri town. An unconfirmed number of people, believed to be in the thousands, are displaced and without shelter (OCHA, 29/05/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
6.4 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in 2015 (OCHA, 08/01/2015). The delivery of aid is restricted by heavy fighting, logistical constraints, and administrative impediments.
On 13 May, Parliament passed an ‘NGO Bill’, which requires that organisations sign a 'country agreement'. Similar agreements have been used before to control organisations in Sudan. The bill would also ban the formation of forums for international NGOs (which could hinder coordination), and allow the Government to impose unspecified fees (IRIN, 13/05/2015).
On 29 May, the Government expelled the UN resident coordinator: no reason was given (The Guardian, 01/06/2015).
Heavy fighting in Unity, Jonglei and Upper Nile in April to June has blocked humanitarian access and affected an estimated 750,000 people. (OCHA, 26/06/2015). Humanitarian staff were evacuated from Unity and Upper Nile in late May (UNHCR, 05/06/2015). ICRC and MSF returned to their sites in Leer in the last week of May. Their sites had been looted (ICRC, 27/05/2015; MSF, 27/06/2015). On 29 June, MSF resumed operations in Melut Upper Nile state (MSF, 29/06/2015). Armed activity in the vicinity of Malakal PoC threatens IDPs and humanitarian workers (IOM, 25/06/2015).
Incidents against humanitarian personnel and assets reported in January and February 2015 included assault, burglary, harassment, arrest, and detention. Most cases were reported in Juba (Central Equatoria), Bentiu (Unity), and Upper Nile (OCHA, 18/03/2015).
Four national aid workers have been reported missing in Koch county, Unity state (Nonviolent Peaceforce, 27/05/2015). A WFP staff member and one UNMISS contractor are still being held after their abduction in Malakal in October 2014 (UNMISS, 17/10/2014; WFP, 17/10/2014). Two WFP staff members and a WFP-contracted driver have been missing from Upper Nile state since 1 April (WFP, 10/04/2015).
As of June 2015, around 2.5 people have been displaced internally and to neighbouring countries (UNHCR, 11/06/2015). Fluid displacement patterns and limited access to rural areas make numbers difficult to verify (UNHCR 11/07/2014).
There are approximately 1,539,000 IDPs in South Sudan: 595,500 in Jonglei, 437,600 in Unity, 74,100 in Central Equatoria, 244,900 in Upper Nile, and 125,400 in Lakes (UNHCR, 22/06/2015; OCHA, 15/05/2015). An estimated 802,120 IDPs are under 18 (UNICEF, 26/03/2015).
Displacement patterns remain fluid, driven by violence, floods, and the search for emergency assistance (IOM, 03/09/2014). Many IDPs are repeatedly displaced. Since the beginning of May, fighting south of Bentiu, Unity state displaced up to 100,000 people at its peak (UNHCR, 02/06/2015). As of 26 May, 28,000 people displaced by recent fighting in Unity state were thought to have returned home (local media, 26/05/2015).
Fighting in Upper Nile state reportedly displaced some 25,000 IDPs near Melut. They fled towards Paloch. The status of these IDPs remains unknown (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
As of 18 June, the estimated number of civilians seeking safety in six Protection of Civilians (PoC) sites on UNMISS bases is 136,590, including 74,090 in Bentiu (average 300–600 daily arrivals), 28,663 in Juba UN House, 30,410 in Malakal (3,932 new arrivals between 13 and 20 June), 2,374 in Bor, 2,135 in Melut, and 365 in Wau (UNMISS, 18/06/2015; IOM, 25/06/2015).
The South Sudanese Government has rejected a UN plan to relocate 100,000 IDPs to places of their choice, which included areas under SPLM-IO control (local media, 10/05/2015).
Refugees in South Sudan
264,848 refugees are in South Sudan: with around 235,000 are from Sudan, 15,500 from DRC, 4,900 from Ethiopia, and 2,040 from CAR. Over 134,000 refugees are based in Upper Nile and around 96,500 in Unity (UNHCR, 26/06/2015). Most of the Sudanese refugees in Upper Nile state reside in four refugee camps in Maban county (OCHA, 03/04/2014).
Since 23 December 2014, 12,284 new refugees have arrived in Yida, bringing the total to 70,114 (UNCHR, 05/06/2015). Arrival rates have increased sharply in 2015 (OCHA, 21/02/2015). Refugees cited aerial bombardments, ground attacks and lack of livelihood and education opportunities as reasons for leaving (UNHCR, 30/01/2015).
The South Sudan Government wants to close Yida camp in June 2015 and relocate refugees to other camps. The Government and UNHCR have agreed to expand Ajuong Thok refugee camp to accommodate up to 40,000 people. 520 were transferred from Yida in early May (UNCHR, 06/05/2015).
South Sudan Refugees in Other Countries
Approximately 592,795 South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighbouring countries since the onset of the conflict in December 2013 (UNHCR, 26/06/2015). Since the beginning of 2015, 60,000 South Sudanese have fled the country, with 30,000 seeking refuge in Sudan, predominantly in While Nile state (UNHCR, 02/06/2015; 26/06/2015).
There were reports in May of large movements of people towards West Kordofan state, at the border with Sudan (UNHCR, 18/05/2015). Ethiopia and Uganda also reported sharp increases in arrivals during May.
Sudan: As of 26 June, 180,506 South Sudanese nationals have arrived in Sudan since December 2013. Around 14,000 new refugees entered over 12–14 June due to fighting in Upper Nile (UNHCR, 18/06/2015).
As of late March, the Sudanese Government has refused to recognise South Sudanese nationals as refugees and instead considers them to be Sudanese citizens (UNHCR, 03/04/2014). UNHCR declared this constitutes an obstacle to accessing humanitarian assistance.
Ethiopia: 211,214 South Sudanese refugees (UNHCR, 26/06/2015).
Uganda: 154,840 refugees (UNHCR, 26/06/2015).
Kenya: 46,235 refugees (UNHCR, 26/06/2015).
The number of people living in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security was expected to reached 3.6 million and 1 million, respectively by the end of July (IPC, 27/05/2015), but predictions from FEWSNET suggest that the situation may be even worse. This is due to the conflict cutting off access to communities in Upper Nile and Unity, as well as deteriorating macro-economic conditions (FEWNET, 24/06/2015). Fangak, Canal/Pigi, Ulang, Luakpiny/Nasir, and Longochuk counties were at Emergency as of April (FEWSNET, 20/04/2015; WFP, 15/04/2015; IPC, 27/05/2015). Though no assessment has produced figures, Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes are likely in Ayod and Mayendit, where 10% of the population has been observed as severely food insecure (FEWNET, 24/06/2015).
Logistical constraints make timely delivery of food by WFP to Upper Nile a challenge (UNHCR, 05/06/2015). Fighting forced WFP to stop food distribution to 155,000 food insecure people (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
In Juba, prices of both locally produced and imported cereals, vegetable oil and sugar increased by 24–69% in the first quarter of 2015, making them 90–100% higher than the normal seasonal levels. 80% of household income is spent on food (IPC, 27/05/2015).
The food security situation has worsened in Warrap and Lakes states, as they experienced above-normal flooding in 2014, which affected crop harvests, livestock migration, and disease patterns. In Lakes state, increased inter-clan fighting and cattle raiding has affected the stability of livelihoods (IPC, 02/2015).
Health and Nutrition
4.6 million people need health assistance (UN, 12/06/2015).
Malaria, acute respiratory infections, acute watery diarrhoea, and acute bloody diarrhoea are the main causes of illness among IDPs (WHO, 15/02/2015). There have been 1,085 cases of acute watery diarrhoea in Maban county's four refugee camps (UNHCR, 08/05/2015).
The start of the rainy season in June has increased the risk of infection from waterborne diseases, particularly in IDP and refugee camps (UNHCR, 12/06/2015).
In Unity, a hospital in Koch has been destroyed in fighting. It provided healthcare to around 35,000 people (international media, 12/05/2015).
5–8% of citizens are in severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (FEWSNET, 24/06/2015). An estimated 250,000 children are severely malnourished, according to an OCHA representative (OCHA, 13/06/2015). Malnutrition remains particularly high among pregnant and lactating women, with an average rate of 26.6% recorded in IDP camps (UNHCR, 26/06/2015).
In the town of Leer, at least 1,400 children have been reported as malnourished and no longer receiving treatment (MSF, 09/05/2015; Medair, 13/05/2015). In Bentiu PoC site, screening of 9,288 children under five revealed a SAM rate of 1.8%. In Jonglei, 10,865 children under-five were screened, and 4.8% were severely malnourished. In Upper Nile, screening of 4,899 children found 0.6% SAM (UNICEF, 21/05/2015).
Malnutrition screening of 22,917 children in January and February in the three conflict-affected states found GAM levels above the emergency threshold of 15% in Upper Nile (17.2%), Unity (18.9%) and Jonglei (26%) (UNICEF, 26/03/2015). Among the traditionally high-burden states in non-conflict areas, GAM rates were highest in Warrap (17.2%) and Northern Bahr el Ghazal (14.6%) (WFP, 12/2014).
The screening of over 600,000 children across the country in 2014 found an SAM rate of 6.7% and an MAM rate of 12.6% (UNICEF, 19/08/2014).
1,316 cases of visceral leishmaniasis, including 39 deaths (case fatality rate 3.18%), were reported in Lankien, Ulang, Walgak, and Chuil (Jonglei) in the first quarter of 2015. Of these, 837 were new cases, 188 were relapses, and 18 did not complete treatment (WHO, 15/02/2015; 29/03/2015).
7,204 cases and 199 deaths were recorded in 2014, compared to 2,992 cases and 88 deaths for all 2013 (WHO, 08/01/2015). Kala azar is a chronic and potentially fatal parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of infected sandflies.
The current outbreak began on 18 May in Juba PoC. 347 suspected cases and 26 deaths have been recorded as of 27 June and has spread beyond the PoC to the wider Juba area (WHO, 27/06/2015).
6.4 million people are estimated to be in need of WASH assistance (UN, 12/06/2015). Over 80% of the reported latrines in Ajuong Thok camp (Unity state) lack roofs or doors, and are not gender-separated. Only one of the seven sites, Dabat Bosin, has adequate water supply to reach SPHERE emergency standards of 15L per person per day (UNHCR, 29/05/2015).
Water coverage in Melut PoC, Bentiu PoC, and Malakal PoC was 12.4, 13.4, and 10.2 L/person/day, respectively (IOM, 25/06/2015; 27/05/2015). In Yida refugee camp, crude water coverage was 14 L/person/day (UNHCR, 22/06/2015).
Malakal PoC, Bentiu PoC, and Melut have 65, 28, and 55 people per latrine, respectively (IOM, 25/06/2015; 14/05/2015).
An estimated 2 million people are in need of education assistance (UN, 12/06/2015). Only 6% of 13-year-old girls have completed primary school (Plan, 10/06/2015).
83 schools are occupied by armed groups or IDPs (OCHA, 27/03/2014). Many schools remain closed in Jonglei, Unity, and Upper Nile (local media, 20/03/2015).
Children are not attending school in 70% of IDP sites (CCCM, 17/04/2014). The inability to pay teachers’ wages has limited education activities in displacement areas (OCHA, 26/10/2014).
A UN Security Council report stated that all parties to the conflict since December 2013 were responsible for grave violations against children, including killing and maiming, recruitment and use, abduction, and rape and other forms of sexual violence (UN, 30/12/2014). In Unity state alone, 129 children were killed in the last three weeks of May (UNICEF, 17/06/2015).
25,000 children have been separated from their families (UN, 16/06/2015). 13,000 children have reportedly been recruited by armed groups since the beginning of 2014 (OCHA Monitor, 16/06/2015). Since January, UNICEF has released 1,757 children who had been recruited as child soldiers by the Cobra faction (UNICEF, 24/04/2015).
Rape has been used as a weapon of war between government and opposition forces (international media, 23/10/2014). An UNMISS report released on 30 June accused SPLA troops of abducting at least 172 women and girls and raping an additional 79 during their April–May campaign in Unity state. Some were burnt alive inside their homes after being raped (Al Jazeera, 30/06/2015; Radio Tamazuj 30/06/2015; Dabanga, 30/06/2015). The abduction of IDP women from outside PoCs continues to be reported (UNHCR, 12/06/2015).
Early and forced marriage, rape, and domestic violence have been reported in Maban refugee camps (OCHA, 16/10/2014). In Melut (Upper Nile), firewood collection remains a major safety concern for women and girls, with reports of GBV (OCHA, 26/10/2014).
29 June: Despite protests from the Sudanese Government, the Security Council extended the mandate of African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) until June 2016 (Firstpost, 29/06/2015).
22–26 June: 3,561 refugees from South Sudan arrived in White Nile state (UNHCR, 26/06/2015). 100–150 refugees are arriving from South Sudan daily (OCHA, 21/06/2015).
- 6.6 million people (20% of the population) need humanitarian assistance (OCHA 17/11/2014): 4.4 million in Darfur and 980,000 in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states (OCHA, 11/2014).
- 1.4 million people face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes. Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and West Kordofan are worst affected (FSNWG, 26/05/2015).
- 1.2 million children under five acutely malnourished, an estimated 550,000 are severely acutely malnourished (OCHA, 23/04/2015).
- 3.1 million IDPs. Two million in Darfur prior to 2014, 209,000 displaced in 2015 (OCHA, 15/05/2015).
- Humanitarian access remains a significant problem due to insecurity, mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), logistical constraints, and restrictions placed by the authorities.
Large-scale internal displacement due to violence, widespread food insecurity, malnutrition, lack of access to basic services, and recurrent natural disasters. Humanitarian access to conflict zones is severely restricted.
Numerous, protracted insurgencies are being waged by several armed groups across Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile. Darfur has been the scene of inter-communal clashes and conflict between the government and armed opposition for over a decade, and fighting intensified in March 2014. Violence in Blue Nile and South Kordofan grew significantly after South Sudan won independence in 2011. Tensions also continue to run high between Sudan and South Sudan.
Profound divisions within Sudanese society have persisted since independence in 1956, and the Government’s exploitation of intercommunal differences has aggravated the situation.
Parliamentary and presidential elections were held 13–15 April, and according to unofficial estimates President Omar al Bashir achieved a landslide victory. Voter turnout was reportedly extremely low (AP, 13/04/2015; international media, 19/04/2015). The Sudan Revolutionary Front and the National Umma Party, and other opposition groups boycotted in the elections (Al Jazeera, 27/04/2015).
Tensions between Khartoum and Juba, persistent since South Sudan’s independence in 2011, increased when violence erupted in South Sudan in December 2013. The disruption of oil flow is a key concern for both countries. In November 2014, South Sudanese officials accused the Sudanese Government of bombing Raga county, Western Bahr el Ghazal state, and Maban county, Upper Nile state, where more than 220,000 Sudanese refugees are living (AFP, 14/11/2014).
The Sudanese Government has accused Juba of using Sudanese militia groups, and the South Sudanese army (SPLA) has accused Khartoum of supporting the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement -in-Opposition. Both the opposition and Khartoum have denied the accusations.
Sudan Revolutionary Front
The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), formed in 2011, is seeking a comprehensive peace process covering the whole country. The Government is only willing to discuss the conflict in Darfur.
The SRF is made up of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), mainly active in Blue Nile and South Kordofan states, as well as Darfur’s three largest opposition groups: the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM); the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Abdel Wahid Al Nur (SLM-AW); and the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Minni Arkou Minnawi (SLM-MM).
In March 2015, the Sudanese Government and a number of Darfur opposition-group commanders led by Mohamedain Ismail Basher, formerly the SLM-MM operations commander, signed a peace agreement in N’Djamena, Chad.
Blue Nile and South Kordofan States
While the SPLM governs the independent South Sudan, the SPLM-North continues an insurgency in Sudan’s Blue Nile and South Kordofan states, which have routinely opposed government rule. Talks between Khartoum and the SPLM-N have repeatedly failed, and negotiations last collapsed in April 2014, reportedly over the SPLM-N’s demand for a comprehensive peace process.
Extensive military operations aimed to end armed opposition in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile began at the end of 2013. Tribal fighting also intensified in Darfur and Kordofan regions in 2013 and 2014, leading to thousands of deaths and injuries and forcing over 300,000 people to flee their homes. Large-scale violence by pro-government militia against the IDP population in Darfur continues in 2015.
UN Peacekeeping Mission
Relations between the Government of Sudan and the UN peacekeeping mission deteriorated following the Government’s refusal to allow a African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) investigation of mass rape in Tabit, North Darfur at the end of 2014 (AFP, 30/11/2014). Despite protests from the Sudanese government, the Security Council extended UNAMID’s mandate until June 2016 (Firstpost, 29/06/2015).
Security in Darfur has reportedly deteriorated significantly since late December 2013, with numerous airstrikes by the Sudanese Air Force (SAF). Attacks by pro-government militia on IDPs and villagers, their shelters, and commercial convoys, are frequent.
On 15 June, government forces conducted operations to regain control of the former government garrison town of Rokoro, Central Darfur. 38 civilians are reported to have been killed during airstrikes and shelling in Rokoro and nearby villages. On 12 June, government airstrikes in Central Darfur targeted Solo and Dalo settlements, reportedly killing three civilians (local media, 12/06/2015).
Fighters attacked the government base in the West Darfur capital, Geneina, on 15 June (local media, 16/06/2015). On 18 and 19 May, an unknown number of villagers were injured and at least one was killed during attacks by the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) in Tawila locality, North Darfur (local media, 19/05/2015; All Africa, 21/05/2015).
On 23–24 April, clashes in Kass, South Darfur, left four of the armed group dead and six peacekeepers injured (USAID, 15/06/2015).
Inter-communal violence: Following weeks of tension, fighting erupted between the Southern Reizeigat and Maaliya tribes in East Darfur on 10 and 11 May near Abu Karinka, East Darfur. Approximately 100 tribesmen were killed and around 168,000 individuals are believed affected. Over 980 houses were destroyed. Fighting has now stopped. Around 80,000 people are believed to be returning home but remain in need of assistance. Most are living with relatives, and virtually no food stocks remain. Approximately 10L of water are available per person per day (local media, 17/05/2015; international media, 11/05/2015; OCHA, 14/06/2015).
In 2014, there were serious clashes between Misseriya and Salamat in Central Darfur, between Misseriya clans in West Darfur, and between Maaliya and Rizeigat in East Darfur (local media, 20/08/2014).
Kordofan and Blue Nile
Information on Blue Nile and South Kordofan states is difficult to obtain as government authorities severely restrict access to the fighting zone. Local civil society actors reported an intensification of conflict in May 2015, as Government and SPLM-N forces attempted to gain ground ahead of the rainy season. One organisation reported 665 attacks, 39 civilians killed, 148 people injured, and 347 houses destroyed, displacing thousands. If correct, these figures are an increase on the number of violent incidents in May 2014 (The Sudan Consortium, 05/2015).
On 12 June, the Sudanese Government bombed Wed Abuk in Blue Nile state. An unknown number of civilians were killed and injured (Local Media, 14/06/2015). 10 April, government forces began a ‘scorched earth’ campaign, burning villages and causing displacement in SPLM-N held areas (local media, 28/05/2015). On 21 May, government forces attacked and burned Medeim El Jebel village, in Blue Nile. Some 2,000 families (14,000 people) are believed to be living in the open without shelter (local media, 21/05/2015).
Fighting between SPLM-N and government troops intensified in March (SKBNCU, 03/2015). According to Human Rights Watch and local media reports, the Government of Sudan continues to drop cluster bombs on civilian areas of South Kordofan’s Nuba Mountains in May. The most recent bombing campaign allegedly began in February 2015 (Nuba Reports, 05/2015; Human Rights Watch, 16/04/2015). Sudanese Government has denied possession of any stockpiles of cluster bombs, which are prohibited by the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions (Human Rights Watch, 16/04/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
6.6 million people (20% of the population) are in need of humanitarian assistance; more than half are in Darfur and South Kordofan and Blue Nile states (OCHA 17/11/2014).
In October, 4.4 million people in Darfur, more than half of the region’s population, needed humanitarian assistance (OCHA). This includes 2.4 million IDPs, 1.9 million non-displaced severely affected by violence, and 136,000 returnees or refugees from neighbouring countries.
In South Kordofan and Blue Nile states, 749,000 need assistance in government-controlled areas and 378,000 are estimated displaced by conflict in SPLM-N territory. Limited access to non-government areas makes verification impossible.
Humanitarian access for international relief organisations is a major problem. Humanitarian operations are heavily hampered by insecurity, the presence of mines and ERW, logistical constraints, and government restrictions.
As of May it is estimated that 92,000 IDPs are without access to humanitarian assistance due to fighting in North Darfur (UNHCR, 30/04/2015, local media, 29/05/2015).
Administrative and Logistical Constraints
Access to areas of active conflict in Darfur remains largely denied (OCHA, 03/06/2015). Following the violence in Abu Karinka in May, authorities denied UNAMID and humanitarian agencies access to the area (IRIN, 02/06/2015). The Humanitarian Aid Commission has been accused of impeding the distribution of food, water, and shelter materials to IDPs in South Darfur (local media, 09/05/2015).
August 2013 regulations ban foreign humanitarian groups and UN agencies from working for human rights, and the Government has banned humanitarian access to areas controlled by opposition groups.
East Jebel Marra has been virtually inaccessible since 2010.
There has been no humanitarian access from Sudan to opposition-held areas in South Kordofan since October 2013.
Security Incidents Involving Aid Workers
An increase in carjacking incidents targeting aid organisations has been reported, with at least three recorded in mid-May (OCHA, 24/05/2015). Three national aid workers were killed in Blue Nile state and two attacks on aid organisations were reported between January and February 2015 (ECHO, 10/02/2015; MSF, 22/01/2015). 25 aid workers were abducted in Darfur in 2014, the highest number of abduction cases recorded since 2004 (OCHA, 22/01/2015).
In early June, heavy rainfall in Central Darfur destroyed several houses and caused food stock loss, in particular affecting IDPs (local media, 03/06/2015).
At the end of May, strong winds and heavy rains affected five villages near Abyei town, leaving 210 households (1,470 individuals) in need of assistance (OCHA, 24/05/2015).
As of May 2015, there are 3.1 million IDPs in Sudan, 2.55 million of whom are in Darfur (OCHA, 03/06/2015; UNHCR, 30/04/2015). Up to 209,000 people have been displaced in Darfur since the start of 2015 (OCHA, 15/06/2015) similar to figures for the previous year, which saw the biggest displacement for a decade (OCHA, 31/12/2014).
2.4 million IDPs reside in 46 camps and 68 settlements in Darfur (82,530 orphans, 34,099 widows, and 52,352 sick and elderly), according to a survey conducted by the Darfur Regional Authority (DRA) from December 2013 to April 2014. OCHA reported in June that government policy to prevent the creation of new camps is an obstacle to the verification and registration of IDPs. The displaced in Darfur report insecurity as a major concern. Other concerns include lack of access to basic services such as water, food, shelter, and medicines (IRIN, 02/06/2015).
67,000 people were displaced by fighting between Berti and Zayadia tribes in Mellit, North Darfur over late February and early March (OCHA, 03/05/2015).
Over 121,000 people have been displaced in North and Central Darfur, including Jebel Marra, since early January. 41,304 have been verified in North Darfur (OCHA, 31/03/2015).
Jebel Marra: Up to 100,000 people may have been displaced since the beginning of 2015, however lack of access means humanitarian agencies have been unable to confirm the number or reach the displaced (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
North Darfur: 5,340 unverified IDPs arrived from East Darfur fleeing fighting erupted between the Southern Reizeigat and Maaliya tribes which occurred on 10 and 11 May. 4,700 are sheltered in schools. 50 cases of SAM were recorded among children (OCHA, 24/05/2015). In February, OCHA verified 41,304 newly displaced (OCHA, 22/02/2015).
South Darfur: Two fires have broken out in two months in El Doma camp, South Darfur. The most recent, on 29 May, destroyed 18 shelters (local media, 29/05/2015).
Central Darfur: Between May and June, over 320 people came to Zalingei camp, Central Darfur, after their homes were burned down by militia groups (OCHA, 21/06/2015). There were 74,000 verified IDPs at the beginning of January 2015 (OCHA 31/12/2014).
East Darfur: 35,000 IDPs as of end November 2014 (OCHA, 31/12/2014).
West Darfur: 6,000 IDPs arrived from East Darfur fleeing fighting between the Southern Reizeigat and Maaliya tribes which occurred on the 10 and 11 May (OCHA, 24/05/2015).
Blue Nile and South Kordofan: Over 378,000 people are estimated displaced in SPLM-N territory (OCHA, 03/02/2015). With no presence in the SPLM-N territory, the UN is unable to verify these figures (OCHA, 19/05/2014). 40,000 people have been displaced in Blue Nile since the start of 2015 (OCHA, 15/06/2015). In Blue Nile, some 13,000 people were reportedly forcibly relocated from Bau to Ar Roseires. They are in need of improved shelter, access to safe water, nutrition and health services (UNICEF, 31/05/2015). In May, different organisations have reported between 7,000 and 26,000 people displaced in South Kordofan. These numbers are difficult to verify (HART, 05/06/2015; The Sudan Consortium, 05/2015).
West Kordofan: More than 52,000 people were reported displaced in September (OCHA, 21/09/2014).
Refugees in Sudan
There are 304,879 refugees in Sudan (UNHCR, 30/04/2015). As of 25 June, 180,506 are South Sudanese nationals who have arrived in Sudan since 15 December 2013 (UNHCR, 30/06/2015). South Sudanese refugees mainly flee to White Nile and South Kordofan states. The number crossing the border increased dramatically in June following intense conflict in Upper Nile and Unity states. 9,200 are in the border locality of Kharasana in West Kordofan and a further 3,561 arrived in White Nile state between 22 and 26 June (Radio Tamazuj, 23/06/2015; UNHCR, 26/06/2015). 100–150 refugees are arriving daily (OCHA, 21/06/2015).
As of 3 June, Approximately 88,750 South Sudanese refugees live in White Nile, 33,450 in Khartoum, 13,400 in South Kordofan, 17,630 in West Kordofan, 3,660 in Blue Nile and 160 East Darfur (UNHCR, 03/06/2015). 66% (85,240) are children (UNICEF, 02/2015). 91% of households are female-headed (UNHCR, 29/01/2015).
6,800 displaced South Sudanese are living in the disputed area of Abyei (OCHA, 17/12/2014).
Sudanese Refugees in Other Countries
As of January 2015, OCHA reported 367,000 Sudanese refugees in Chad, 233,000 in South Sudan, 35,000 in Ethiopia, and 1,880 in Central African Republic (UNHCR, 23/02/2015; OCHA, 03/02/2015).
12,384 refugees from South Kordofan have fled to South Sudan (Yida, in Unity state) since December 2014 (UNHCR, 31/05/2015).
Food security is expected to deteriorate when the lean season begins in June (FEWSNET, 31/05/2015). The number of food insecure will increase to 4 million and peak at 4.2 million in August/September (FEWSNET, 01/02/2014; OCHA, 03/05/2015).
Conflict continues to prevent food distribution in areas of South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Darfur. Newly displaced households and IDPs without access to humanitarian assistance are facing Crisis (FEWSNET, 31/05/2015; 13/06/2015). An estimated 20–25% of poor households in the northern parts of North Darfur and North Kordofan states are expected to be facing Stressed (IPC Phase 2) food insecurity (FEWSNET, 31/05/2015).
Health and Nutrition
The UN estimated in mid-December 2013 that 165,000 children in SPLM-N-controlled parts of South Kordofan and Blue Nile do not have access to basic health services.
There are indications that the health situation in Darfur is deteriorating; many have no access to healthcare.
A measles outbreak began in late 2014. As of 24 May, 2,511 confirmed cases and 38 deaths have been reported in 2015, in 17 of Sudan’s 18 states (OCHA, 29/06/2015). 167 confirmed measles cases were reported in the week ending 3 May, compared with 101 cases during the previous week. West Darfur is worst affected (653 confirmed cases, nine deaths as of early May). Kassala has had 397 confirmed cases and five deaths, while in Red Sea state, there have been 352 cases and five deaths (WHO, 03/05/2015).
The children's emergency hospital in Omdurman, Khartoum, received 53 cases of meningitis in the last two weeks of May (local media, 29/05/2015).
1.2 million children under five were estimated to be acutely malnourished as of April 2015. This revision of the planning figures is a drop from 2 million estimated at the end of September 2014 (OCHA, 23/04/2015).
Across Sudan, approximately one person in nine does not have access to a clean water supply (Kimse Yok Mu, 24/06/2015). Limited water supply and sanitation facilities are reported in most refugee sites in White Nile state. The situation has further deteriorated with the recent new influx of refugees from South Sudan (OCHA, 31/05/2015). In Al Alagaya and El Redis II, the population has very limited access to water (UNHCR, 05/06/2015).
20 water pumps have stopped working in El Salam camp, South Darfur in the past five months, affecting 80,000 people (Radio Dabanga, 04/05/2015). Displaced people have also complained about a lack of available water in Gereida, South Darfur (local media, 22/06/2015). Kassab IDP camp in Kutum has been suffering from a severe shortage of drinking water since the beginning of May. Reports suggest that 11 out of the 20 water pumps at the camp are non-operational (local media, 25/05/2015).
Parts of the capital Khartoum are not receiving water due to poor infrastructure. This has caused protests (local media, 22/06/2015).
In Um Sangor camp, 572 people share one latrine (OCHA, 31/05/2015).
3 million children aged 5–13 are out of school in Sudan. 1.9 million of these are primary school-aged children (UNICEF, 14/04/2015).
On 4 June, 14 Eritrean asylum seekers were kidnapped as they were transported to Shegarab refugee camp in eastern Sudan (AFP, 04/06/2015).
Mines and ERW
250 locations covering an estimated 32km2 are contaminated by mines and ERW, with the greatest concentrations in Kassala, Gedaref, Red Sea, Blue Nile, South Kordofan, and Darfur (UNMAS). South Kordofan is the most heavily mined area of Sudan, according to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor.
Sexual and Gender-based Violence
On 18 and 19 May at least three cases of rape were reported during attacks by the RSF in Tawila, North Darfur (local media, 19/05/2015). Reports in early November suggested that more than 200 women and girls had been raped by Sudanese soldiers in Tabit area in North Darfur. Sudanese troops denied UNAMID access to assess the situation (Reuters, 17/11/2014). Rape of IDPs by pro-government militia was frequently reported by the local media in North, South, and Central Darfur and Jebel Marra in 2014.
As of March 2014, the Sudanese Government refuses to recognise South Sudanese nationals as refugees and instead considers them to be Sudanese citizens (UNHCR, 03/04/2014). All foreigners in Sudan had to register with the immigration administration by 1 April. UNHCR has declared this constitutes an obstacle to humanitarian assistance.
Syria Country Analysis
28 June: An estimated 120,000 people have fled fighting in Al Hasakeh during the last weeks (OCHA).
27 June: YPG forces repelled Islamic State’s assault on Kobane (BBC).
26 June: 11,500 people have died from torture since the conflict began (SNHR).
- Over 230,000 deaths documented March 2011–June 2015, including over 108,000 civilians, more than 11,000 of them children (SOHR, 06/2015). 2014 recorded the highest number of deaths, with 76,000 fatalities.
- 12.2 million people in need of humanitarian assistance inside Syria, including 5.6 million children (OCHA/UNICEF, 12/2014).
- 7.6 million IDPs (OCHA, 28/12/2014).
- 4.8 million people live in hard-to-reach areas (OCHA, 12/2014).
- 3,978,851 Syrians are registered or waiting to register as refugees outside Syria as of 26 May (UNHCR, 26/05/2015). Children make up 51.6% of the refugee population.
- 711 of 1,921 primary health centres and 37 of 92 public hospitals are out of service. 26 of 41 basic emergency obstetric care centres are reported non-functional (Syrian Ministry of Health/UNFPA, 30/11/2014).
- 13,000 people have died in detention since March 2011, including more than 100 children, reportedly from torture (SOHR, 13/03/2015).
The conflict has killed over 230,000 people and caused large-scale displacement. Protection concerns are widespread. WASH and access to food are high priorities, as well as access to health services. Humanitarian needs in areas under prolonged and ongoing siege are particularly high because access is obstructed.
On 4 May, the Geneva III conference began. UN officials are holding separate consultations with the Syrian Government, some opposition groups, and regional powers such as Turkey and Iran. The talks are due to conclude in July (AFP, 10/06/2015).
The conflict in Syria has been ongoing since 2011, when fighting broke out between pro-government and opposition forces. The conflict later developed as more actors became involved, in particular Jabhat al Nusra (JAN), Islamic State (IS), and Kurdish armed groups such as People’s Protection Units (YPG).
Widespread conflict and high levels of violence continue, including indiscriminate aerial bombing by government forces and indiscriminate shelling by armed opposition (UNSC 21/11/2014). Aleppo, Idleb, Damascus, Rural Damascus, Quneitra, and Dar’a governorates are all high-frequency conflict locations (SOHR in SNAP, 03/2015).
During May, 6,657 people were killed, making it the deadliest month of 2015. Of these, 1,285 were civilians, and more than half of them were killed in government airstrikes (SOHR, 01/06/2015).
In 2014, 76,000 people were killed in conflict, the highest toll since the war began. 18,000 civilians, including at least 3,500 children, were among the victims (SOHR, 02/01/2014). At least 6,550 civilians died in airstrikes, half of them in Aleppo. More than 230,000 people have been killed since fighting began in March 2011 and more than one million people have been wounded or suffered permanent disability (SOHR, 08/06/2015; UNICEF, 03/2015).
Government forces have control of several areas near Aleppo city, in and around Homs city, and several areas in the Qalamoun region in Rural Damascus. Government forces also control Tartous governorate, parts of As-Sweida, Dar’a, Hama, Lattakia and Quneitra governorates, and some areas in Al Hasakeh, Deir-ez Zor, and Idleb governorates (ISW, 19/06/2015).
Islamic State (IS, formerly the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant): Ar-Raqqa governorate is IS’s stronghold in Syria, and has been under IS control since October 2014. IS holds significant swathes of territory in Aleppo, Al Hasakeh, and Deir-ez-Zor, and is also fighting in Rural Damascus, Damascus, and Homs (ISW, 19/06/2015).
Democratic Union Party (PYD) and People’s Protection Units (YPG): Syrian Kurds have been in de facto control of Kurdish zones in the north since government forces withdrew mid-2012. This includes large areas of the northern parts of Al Hasakeh, Ar Raqqa, and Aleppo governorates (ISW, 19/06/2015).
Opposition alliances: The Al Qaeda-affiliated Jabhat al Nusra (JAN) controls areas in Idleb governorate (ISW, 19/06/2015). In March, JAN joined forces with several other Islamist groups to create the Jaysh al Fatah Operations Room, mainly active in Idleb governorate (ISW). In April, Ahrar al Sham, Jaysh al Islam, and five other Aleppo-based opposition groups announced the formation of the Aleppo Conquest Operations Room in Aleppo city (ISW, 28/04/2015). The Aleppo Conquest Operations Room later extended its membership to include 31 opposition groups, including factions based in Idleb and Hama (ISW, 20/05/2015).
International intervention: As part of a multinational campaign against Islamist militant groups, a US-led coalition began airstrikes on IS and JAN military installations in September 2014. More than 2,500 people have been killed by coalition airstrikes so far, the vast majority of them IS fighters, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR, 23/05/2015).
Since the seizure of Palmyra on 21 May, IS is in control of more than 50% of Syrian territory (SOHR, 21/05/2015). The YPG, supported by other armed groups and coalition airstrikes, are challenging IS in the north (ISW, 25/06/2015). Government forces are struggling to secure and hold terrain (ISW, 24/06/2015).
Aleppo: Over 25–27 June, YPG forces repelled an IS attack on Kobane (BBC, 27/06/2015). At least 206 people were killed (SOHR, 27/06/2015). Renewed clashes are reported in Aleppo city (SOHR, 29/06/2015). Government forces have been dropping barrel bombs on Aleppo city an almost daily basis (Reuters, 23/06/2015).
Al Hasakeh: On 25 June, IS launched an assault on Al Hasakeh city, following a series of suicide attacks on 24 June (ISW, 25/06/2015). As of 28 June, an estimated 120,000 people have been displaced during the last weeks of fighting in the governorate (OCHA, 28/06/2015). As of 4 June, IS had seized all military checkpoints south of Al Hasakeh city (AFP, 04/06/2015).
Ar-Raqqa: More than 35,000 people have reportedly fled fighting between YPG and IS forces in northern Ar-Raqqa since early June (AFP, 17/06/2015). On 23 June, YPG seized Brigade 53 military base and entered the city of Ayn Isa (SOHR, 23/06/2015). Kurdish forces seized the town of Tal Abyad from IS on 15 June (AFP, 15/06/2015).
Damascus: Shelling continues to kill and injure civilians on a regular basis (SOHR, 22/06/2015). IS and JAN continue to fight Palestinian groups over control of Yarmouk refugee camp, which currently hosts around 18,000 Palestinian and Syrian refugees (AFP, 25/05/2015).
Dar’a: On 9 June, the FSA-affiliated Southern Front seized control of the Brigade 52 military base, the largest government military base in southern Syria (ISW, 19/06/2015).
Homs: IS continues to expand southward from Palmyra, and is advancing towards the Eastern Qalamoun Mountains (ISW, 19/06/2015). IS took Palmyra on 21 May (BBC, 21/05/2015). Over 22–26 May, IS seized Jazal oilfield northwest of Palmyra; Sawwanah, Khunayfis, and Buhairi, west of Palmyra; and the last remaining border crossing under government control, Al Tanf (ISW, 22/05/2015; 27/05/2015).
Idleb: On 6 June, the Jaysh al Fatah Operations Room seized a number of government-held towns and villages, causing further decline of government control in Idleb (ISW, 19/06/2015). On 28 May, it seized the government stronghold Ariha, south of Idleb city (ISW, 28/05/2015).
Rural Damascus: Maydaa buffers a crucial opposition supply line into the partly besieged Eastern Ghouta suburbs of Damascus (ISW, 04/05/2015). The Syrian Government targeted Maydaa on 3 May, but Jaysh al Islam regained control over 5–9 May (ISW, 12/05/2015).
Quneitra: On 17 June, the Government claimed to have repulsed a major offensive by FSA-affiliated groups around Quneitra town (Reuters, 17/06/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
Some 12.2 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance inside Syria, including 5.6 million children. The humanitarian situation appears most critical in the governorates of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqa, Rural Damascus, and Deir-ez-Zor (SNAP, 28/01/2015).
4.8 million people are living in 137 hard-to-reach areas, including up to two million children (UNICEF, 12/2014; UNFPA, 31/05/2015).
There is a trend of tit-for-tat blocking of access between IS and its opponents, making IS-controlled areas hard to reach, particularly from northern Al Hasakeh, underlining the importance of cross-border access (OCHA, 16/01/2015). Similarly, stakeholders do not allow assistance to reach people perceived to be affiliated with opposing parties, for example in government-controlled areas of Lattakia, Hama, and Idleb. Siege tactics are used by all actors in the conflict. Parties to the conflict continue to target public infrastructure and facilities, including water supply (UNICEF, 15/02/2015).
83% of lights in Syria have gone out since the beginning of the conflict, indicating the impact on infrastructure and supplies (Catholic Agency for Overseas Development, Islamic Relief, et al., 16/03/2015).
In northern Syria, fuel shortages are severely limiting transportation (MSF, 22/06/2015).
The UN’s response efforts are chronically underfunded: As of 30 March, 90% of the Strategic Response Plan for 2015 has not been funded (OCHA, 07/04/2015).
Security Incidents Involving Aid Workers
Ten aid workers have been killed and three injured since the beginning of 2015 (OCHA, 30/04/2015; Aid Worker Security Database, 20/04/2015). 77 humanitarian workers have been killed in the conflict since March 2011 (OCHA, 30/04/2015). 27 UN staff (including 24 UNRWA staff) have been detained or are missing (UNSC 21/11/2014).
Trapped and Hard-to-Reach Communities
422,000 civilians are living in besieged areas (OCHA, 22/06/2015). An estimated 228,000 civilians are under siege in Deir-ez-Zor (OCHA, 21/04/2015). 212,000 people remain besieged in Nubul and Al Zahra in rural Aleppo; Eastern Ghouta, Daryya, and Moadamiyah in Rural Damascus; the Old City in Homs; and Yarmouk camp in Damascus (UNSC, 21/11/2014; UNICEF, 12/2014).
Armed clashes and restrictions imposed by armed groups are hampering assistance, particularly in Al Hasakeh, Ar-Raqqa, Deir-ez-Zor, and rural Hama (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). Al Hasakeh remains inaccessible by road (ICRC, 18/06/2015).
Ar-Raqqa: IS has closed the Syrian Arab Red Crescent and several small local charities, and appropriated warehouses and equipment (OCHA, 30/01/2015). Ar-Raqqa could not be reached by WFP in the first quarter of 2015 (WFP, 31/03/2015).
Damascus: As of April, a significant percentage of the 18,000 civilians in Yarmouk camp were in the area controlled by armed groups, according to UNRWA. There are no operational hospitals or medical facilities for the civilian population trapped inside the camp (Save the Children, 07/04/2015; WHO, 10/04/2015). UNRWA has been unable to provide assistance to Yarmouk camp since early April (UNRWA, 17/05/2015).
Deir-ez-Zor: IS has cut off access to government-controlled areas of Deir-ez-Zor, leaving an estimated 228,000 civilians under siege since February: minimal relief supplies have been airlifted into the city (UNICEF, 30/04/2015). Deir-ez-Zorcould not be reached by WFP in the first quarter of 2015 (WFP, 31/03/2015).
Homs: As of 21 April, three inter-agency convoys have reached Homs governorate (Talbiseh, Al Wa’er and Ar-Rastan). Prior to this, Ar-Rastan was last reached in March 2014 (OCHA, 21/04/2015). Under partial siege since October 2013, over half of Al Waer’s 350,000 residents are IDPs; most are living in substandard accommodation (WFP, 22/10/2014).
Idleb: As of 14 April, lack of access due to insecurity continues to significantly hamper tracking of population movement, safe registration of IDPs, identification of lifesaving needs and provision of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 14/04/2015). 20,000 predominantly Shia in Foah and Kefraya towns in Idleb are cut off and surrounded (OCHA, 08/04/2015).
Rural Damascus: 40,000 people are in urgent need of basic services in Moadamiyah town. The town has been cutoff for several months. Little to no food or water is available; access to healthcare is lacking; and there is no electricity (ICRC, 18/06/2015).
Border closures or tight restrictions by neighbouring countries are dissuading people in life-threatening situations from seeking refuge abroad. Humanitarians have voiced concern over the inconsistent application of regulations at border crossings. Palestinian refugees are particularly affected by closed borders and forced returns from neighbouring countries (UN 24/11/2014).
There are 7.6 million IDPs within Syria; 50% are children (OCHA 25/11/2014). There are 147 IDP camps in northern Syria, and 175,520 IDPs are sheltering in camp settlements (OCHA, 30/01/2015).
1,755,000 people are displaced in Aleppo; 1,388,000 in Rural Damascus; 918,000 in Idleb; 584,000 in Lattakia; 493,000 in Homs; 464,000 in Deir-ez-Zor; 453,000 in Hama; 437,000 in Damascus; 391,000 in Dar’a; 249,000 in Al-Hasakeh; 202,000 in Tartous; 168,000 in Ar-Raqqa; 73,000 in As-Sweida; and 57,000 in Quneitra (OCHA, 02/04/2015).
540,126 people were displaced in the first four months of 2015 (OCHA, 11/05/2015). This includes a number of people who have been displaced several times since the conflict broke out (UNICEF, 30/04/2015).
In Idleb, at least 133,831 people have reportedly been displaced by fighting since late March, including 35,000 to government-controlled areas (OCHA, 11/05/2015). JAN and allied forces’ capture of Jisr al Shughur on 25 April displaced 40,000 people (OCHA, 11/05/2015). At least 11,000 people have fled Palmyra since IS’s takeover on 21 May (UNHCR, 22/05/2015). Many civilians have reportedly not been allowed to flee to government-controlled areas (OCHA, 11/05/2015).
Palestinian refugees in Syria (PRS): There are 560,000 Palestine refugees (OCHA, 21/04/2015). 470,000 Palestine refugees registered with UNRWA are in need of assistance (UNRWA, 21/04/2015). Over 50% have been displaced within Syria (UNRWA 28/10/2014).
On 16 June, Khan Eshieh camp in Rural Damascus was hit by several explosive munitions, killing one Palestinian refugee and injuring an unknown number (UNRWA, 18/06/2015).
Iraqi refugees: There are an estimated 29,000 Iraqi refugees in Syria (UNHCR 25/11/2014).
Syrian Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
3,984,393 Syrians are registered as refugees outside of Syria as of 17 May (UNHCR, 17/06/2015). Children make up 52% of the refugee population.
Turkey: 1,772,535 registered refugees (UNHCR, 15/06/2015). The Government suspended pre-registration in October to focus on the full biometrical registration process (UNHCR, 05/01/2014). 23,135 refugees were registered in Turkey mid-June, having fled fighting in Tal Abyad, Ar-Raqqa, and Deir- ez-Zor (ECHO, 17/06/2015). After YPG forces took control of Tal Abyad, some refugees have started to return (AFP, 17/06/2015).
Lebanon: 1,174,690 refugees (UNHCR 10/06/2015). Lebanon’s borders have been closed to Syrian refugees since 24 October. Since January, Syrians wanting to enter Lebanon must apply for a visa (BBC, 05/01/2015).
Jordan: 629,128 refugees (UNHCR 17/06/2015).
Egypt: 134,329 refugees (UNHCR 06/05/2015).
Iraq: 249,656 refugees (UNHCR 15/06/2015).
PRS: 42,000 have been recorded with UNRWA in Lebanon, 14,348 in Jordan (UNRWA, 02/03/2015) and 860 in Gaza. Around 4,000 are reportedly in Egypt (UNRWA 28/10/2014).
Almost 30,000 IDPs returned to their areas of origin (mostly in Dar’a) in March (OCHA, 21/04/2015). Reportedly, around 70,000 people have returned to Kobane (IRIN, 07/05/2015).
9.8 million people require food, agriculture and livelihoods-related assistance, according to the Food Security and Livelihoods sector. Of these, around 6.8 million people live in high-priority districts and need critical food assistance (WFP, 26/03/2015). IDPs outside formal camps are most susceptible to food shortages (MSNA, 10/2014).
Access constraints continues to hinder food dispatches, particularly in the northeast and south (WFP, 25/11/2014).
Agriculture and Markets
According to FAO estimates, Syria’s overall cereal production in 2014 was approximately 25% below total 2013 production (FAO, 05/03/2015). Drought and conflict have both impacted production.
Since August 2014, the price of 1kg of rice has increased by 26%. Since 2011, the average monthly prices of wheat flour and rice have increased 260% and 434%, respectively. In besieged areas, wheat flour and rice prices have risen by 669% and 560%, respectively. Subsidised bread prices have risen by 154%, and commercial prices by 192% (WFP, 04/2015).
Lack of inputs (such as seeds, fertiliser, and fuel), damage to agricultural machinery, irrigation systems, and storage facilities, combined with disruptions in electricity supply, continue to seriously hamper agricultural production (FAO, 17/06/2015).
Unemployment is at 54% (3.39 million people) (Syrian Centre for Policy Research/UNDP, 19/10/2014). Gross domestic product has contracted by more than 40%, and exports have fallen by 90%. Oil production has dropped by 96% (World Bank/IMF/AFP, 02/12/2014). Between August 2014 and February 2015, the price of diesel rose by 92% (WFP, 28/02/2015).
Health and Nutrition
Over 2.4 million people are in need of health assistance, with highest numbers reported from Ar-Raqqa (627,600), Aleppo (475,270), and Al Hasakeh (356,200).
Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of death for children under 12 months (IFRC, 24/07/2014). Tuberculosis, typhoid, hepatitis A, and scabies have become endemic in northern Syria (AFP, 28/11/2014).
The number of available health professionals has fallen to approximately 45% of 2011 levels and there are severe shortages of surgeons, anaesthesiologists, laboratory professionals, and female health professionals (WHO, 27/03/2015). Local production of medicines has been reduced by 70% and many lifesaving treatments are not available (WHO, 27/03/2015). Hospitals are unable to cope with the demand for surgery, due partly to the increase in the number of injured – averaging 25,000 each month (PHR, 10/2014). Since the start of the conflict, some 200,000 Syrians have died from chronic illnesses due to lack of access to treatment and medicines.
Only 43% of hospitals are fully functioning (UNICEF, 29/01/2015). Aleppo, Rural Damascus, Homs, Dar’a, and Deir-er-Zor have the highest number of non-functional public hospitals. Health facilities in Hama and Idleb governorates have closed or drastically limited their capacity due to a lack of fuel for generators and transportation (MSF, 22/06/2015).
As of end February, only four public hospitals remained operational in Aleppo governorate, and only 132 primary health care centres (WHO, 22/02/2015). Al Sakhour hospital in Aleppo suspended all activities after being bombed on two consecutive days at end April (MSF, 04/05/2015).
In Ar-Raqqa, no obstetric, gynaecological, or paediatric services are reportedly available for the 1.6 million people living there (PHR, 27/02/2015). Little to no mental health services are available (PHR, 27/02/2015).
In Idleb governorate, all three Ministry of Health-run hospitals are either non-functional or inaccessible. All pharmaceutical warehouses have been destroyed (OCHA, 14/04/2015). Ishan hospital in Saraqab was damaged in an airstrike on 18 April, rendering it non-functional (OCHA, 22/04/2015).
Attacks on Health Workers and Facilities
In May, 15 attacks on medical facilities were registered, and ten medical personnel were killed, making it the worst month for attacks on health facilities since conflict started. According to Physicians for Human Rights, government forces were responsible for all the attacks (PHR, 18/06/2015). Missile attacks on ambulances in Aleppo have also been reported (MSF, 18/06/2015).
Since 2011, Physicians for Human Rights has recorded the killing of 633 medical personnel and 271 attacks on 202 medical facilities. Government forces were found to be responsible for 90% of attacks on medical facilities – including 51 attacks with barrel bombs – and 97% of medical personnel deaths – including 142 deaths by torture or execution (PHR, 18/06/2015).
Some 31,400 cases of hepatitis A were reported in 2014. Since January 2015, 1,000 cases have been recorded per month (UNHCR, 10/05/2015). Hepatitis A is linked with lack of safe water and poor sanitation.
Three million women and girls of reproductive age are in need of assistance in Syria, including around 432,000 pregnant women. 26 of 41 basic emergency obstetric care centres are reported as non-functional (Syrian Ministry of Health/UNFPA, 30/11/2014).
More than 350,000 individuals in Syria are estimated to suffer from severe forms of mental illness; over two million people suffer from mild to moderate problems such as anxiety and depression disorders, and a large percentage suffer from moderate to severe psychological/social distress (WHO/UNHCR, 19/10/2014).
In areas with high IDP concentration, 2.3% SAM – above the 2% crisis threshold – and 7.2% GAM rate has been reported (UNICEF, 21/10/2014). It is estimated that four million women and children are in need of preventative and curative nutrition assistance (UNICEF, 15/02/2015).
4.6 million people are in need of WASH assistance. Six out of ten governorates report major problems in the WASH sector.
The availability of safe water is at a third of pre-crisis levels (WHO, 27/03/2015). The reliability of urban piped water is severely reduced and the quality of drinking water cannot be guaranteed due to a lack of testing facilities. Fuel shortages also affect water supply (UNICEF, 15/02/2015). One-third of water treatment plants no longer function, and sewage treatment has halved (PHR, 10/2014; WHO/UNICEF, 22/07/2014).
Shelter and NFIs
1.6 million people are in need of shelter assistance (MSNA, 30/10/2014). 1.2 million houses have been damaged, 400,000 of which have been totally destroyed (UNHCR, 30/10/2014). Only IDPs in government-controlled areas receive shelter response, through collective shelter rehabilitation and private shelter upgrade (UNHCR, 20/11/2014).
Dar’a, Lattakia, and Quneitra have acute needs, followed very closely by Hama, Ar-Raqqa, Aleppo, Al Hasakeh, and Rural Damascus. 40% of people identified in need of shelter are located in Aleppo governorate, as are 34% of people identified in need of NFI assistance (MSNA, 30/10/2014). Satellite imagery analysis indicated that fighting in Kobane affected 3,250 structures, destroying 1,200 (UNOSAT, 06/03/2015).
2.7 million people are in need of NFI assistance (MSNA, 30/10/2014).
Between 2.1 and 2.4 million school-aged children are currently out of school (OCHA, 22/06/2015).
The estimated number of children enrolled in basic education increased from 2.9 million in the 2012/13 academic year to 3.6 million in 2014/15. Likewise, the gross enrolment ratio in basic education rose from 66% in 2012/13 to 79% in 2013/14 (UNICEF, 15/02/2015).
In areas of prolonged active conflict, education enrolment is estimated to be around 6% (Save the Children, 23/03/2015). The primary reason for student drop-out is the need to work to support the family. Continued conflict and the recent closure of some schools in Ar-Raqqa and Deir-ez-Zor governorates and parts of rural Aleppo in Syria are believed to have disrupted education for 670,000 school-aged children (Syrian Interim Government/OCHA, 07/11/2014). Around 90% of schools in Idleb city have stopped functioning due to violent conflict (OCHA, 14/04/2015).
4,000 Syrian schools have been destroyed, damaged, or used to house IDPs. 76 UNRWA schools – more than two-thirds – have become unusable.
Non-state armed groups continue to commit violations, including summary executions. Ethnic and religious communities in IS-occupied areas have been targeted directly (UN Human Rights Council 11/2014). Human and organ trafficking are reported (UNHCR 20/11/2014).
The Druze population, a religious minority that makes up about 3% of Syria’s population, is being increasingly targeted. On 11 June, JAN forces shot and killed 20 Druze in Idleb governorate (Reuters, 11/06/2015).
Non-state armed groups and the Government’s Popular Committees are increasingly recruiting children: over 120 cases – more than half by the Free Syrian Army – were documented between 1 January and 19 August 2014, including girls, and some as young as eight (UNSC, 08/2014).
In 2015 alone, IS has trained over 400 children as fighters (AFP, 24/03/2015). In Ar-Raqqa, IS is using education to foster a new generation of recruits (UN Human Rights Council, 14/11/2014).
Abduction and Detention
Over May, 84 people were reported to have died from torture in official and unofficial detention centres, with Government forces responsible for 82 cases (Syrian Network for Human Rights, 03/06/2015). Since the start of the conflict, 11,500 people have died from torture while in detention; government forces were responsible for 99% of cases (Syrian Network for Human Rights, 26/06/2015).
200,000 people are estimated to be in government detention, including 20,000 detainees who are unaccounted for (SOHR/HRW, 02/12/2014). 13,000 people have died in Government detention since March 2011, including more than 100 children, reportedly from torture (SOHR, 13/03/2015).
Some 7,000 government troops held by opposition forces are unaccounted for (SOHR, 07/2014). Another 1,500 IS, other opposition, and Kurdish fighters were kidnapped during battles in the first half of 2014 (AFP, 07/2014).
IS is holding more than 400 civilians in Deir-Ez-Zor, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Al Hasakeh, Ar-Raqqa, and Rural Damascus (SOHR, 28/06/2015).
Sexual and Gender-based Violence
IS has sought to exclude Syrian women and girls from public life. Forced marriage of girls to IS fighters and the selling of abducted girls into sexual slavery have been reported (UN Human Rights Council, 14/11/2014).
There have been allegations of chlorine attacks. On 8 May, at least three chlorine-filled barrel bomb attacks were reported in Idleb: on a hospital near the town of Kansafra, and on the towns of Al Janudiya and Kafr Beteekh (Syrian American Medical Society Foundation, 08/05/2015). Human Rights Watch also reported two chemical attacks in the towns of Neirab and Saraqib on 2 May. The attacks killed two people and affected 127 (HRW, 03/06/2015). In May 2015, OPCW inspectors reported having found traces of VX and sarin nerve agents at an undeclared site (AFP, 08/05/2015).
In March, a chlorine gas attack in Idleb governorate, reportedly carried out by government forces, killed six and poisoned over 70 people (MSF, 18/03/2015). A chlorine gas attack was reported on the town of Kafr Zeta in August 2014 (OPCW, 09/2014).
Mines and ERW
Large quantities of unexploded ordnance and many booby-trapped houses in the eastern sector of Kobane city and the surrounding countryside are preventing return (OCHA, 17/02/2015). Since late January, there have been 45 explosions and 66 people killed, the vast majority of them civilians, according to a demining NGO (IRIN, 07/05/2015).
In 2013, there were 2,403 civilian casualties from landmines, victim-activated improvised explosive devices (IEDs), cluster munition remnants, and other explosive remnants of war (International Campaign to Ban Landmines/Cluster Munition Coalition, 19/11/2014).
Journalists and other media workers are systematically targeted. Over May, ten media activists were reported killed, three kidnapped and 12 injured (Syrian Network for Human Rights, 02/06/2015).
Yemen Country Analysis
29 June: Islamic State claimed responsibility for a bomb in Sanaa that killed 28 (AFP).
26 June: More than 3,000 people have died since conflict escalated in March (WHO).
- 21.1 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
- 12.2 million people are directly affected by the conflict (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
- 12.9 million people are food insecure, two million people more than before the escalation of the crisis (IPC Indicative Analysis, 18/06/2015). Six million people are estimated to be severely food insecure (OCHA, 05/06/2015).
- More than 15 million people lack access to healthcare, 40% more than in March 2015 (OCHA, 03/06/2015).
- 1 million children under five are acutely malnourished; 280,000 are severely malnourished (OCHA, UNICEF 06/2014).
- At least 20 million people lack access to clean water. Since the escalation of the crisis, 9.4 million people have lost access to safe water due to fuel shortages (OCHA, 05/06/2015).
- 1,019,760 IDPs and 258,000 refugees in the country (OCHA, 03/06/2015; 16/05/2015).
The highest priority humanitarian needs include protection, food, and nutrition assistance, access to healthcare, shelter – primarily for conflict-affected people, and provision of water and sanitation.
Yemen’s political transition has turned into armed conflict between Houthis from the north and the Government. Southern secessionists, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) activity throughout the country, and recent Islamic State attacks compound the security and political challenges.
Instability and violence continue across the country. In February 2015, the Shia Houthis dissolved Parliament and replaced the Government with a presidential council they claimed will fill the presidential vacuum for two years. The move was condemned as a coup by other parties and Yemen’s neighbours.
President Hadi fled to Aden and called for troop mobilisation in the south (AFP, 21/02/2015). Members of the cabinet were released in March, after almost two months of house arrest (NYT, 16/03/2015).
From Saudi Arabia, President Hadi appointed Prime Minister Khaled Bahah to Vice President on 12 April, a move apparently aimed at improving the chances of a peaceful settlement (Reuters, 12/04/2015).
UN-led peace talks including government and Houthi representatives concluded in Geneva on 19 June, with no agreement (AFP, 19/06/2015).
Oil production represents over 70% of total government revenue. Production was suspended in the major oil-producing governorates of Shabwah and Hadramaut in January, and is likely to be disrupted in Marib (FEWSNET, 18/02/2015). Oil revenues had already declined almost 30% between January 2013 and January 2014 (Yemen Central Bank, 02/2014).
Conflict has escalated significantly since 23 March, affecting 20 of Yemen’s 22 governorates (IOM, 22/05/2015). The districts most heavily impacted by conflict are in Aden, Sa’ada, Hajjah, Abyan, Al Dhale’e, Lahj, Taizz and Sanaa (OCHA, 12/06/2015). According to analysts, fighting has reached a stalemate, with the Houthis retaining the territory they have seized (AFP, 15/06/2015). Houthis control Sa’ada, Hajjah, Al Hudaydah, Al Mahwit, Amran, Sanaa, Al Jawf, Dhamar, and Ibb governorates. They also control most of Lahj governorate. Fighting between Hadi-affiliated troops and Houthis is ongoing in Taizz, Al Dhalee, Aden, Abyan, Al Jawf, Shabwah, Sa’ada, and Marib governorates.
As of 26 June, there have been 3,083 registered deaths from conflict and 14,324 injuries since March (WHO, 26/06/2015). 1,362 civilians have been killed and 3,312 injured (OCHA, 10/06/2015). The numbers are expected to be much higher, due to underreporting (OCHA, 25/05/2015).
On 6 June, Houthis fired a Scud missile at Saudi Arabia, which Saudi Arabia claims to have shot down. This is the first reported use of ballistic missiles in the conflict (Reuters, 06/06/2015). Houthis also attacked the border locations of Jazan and Najran (AFP, 06/06/2015).
Hundreds of young men have been recruited since Hadi called for 20,000 new troops from the south (Yemen Times, 16/03/2015). On 19 April, 15,000 troops in Hadramaut province, on the border with Saudi Arabia, pledged allegiance to President Hadi (Al Arabiya, 19/04/2015).
The Houthis, also referred to as Ansarullah, are based in Sa’ada governorate. They occupied much of the capital in September 2014. The Houthis have taken up arms before, citing political, economic, and religious marginalisation (Al Jazeera, 16/11/2009). Certain factions in the deeply divided Yemeni army have allied themselves with the Houthis against President Hadi, including members of the former central security force, a unit seen as loyal to ousted president Ali Abdullah Saleh (Reuters, 12/03/2015; ABC, 23/03/2015).
Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and Ansar al Sharia
AQAP, based in the south and east of the country, and backed by Sunni tribesmen, has fought to halt the Houthis’ advance (AFP, 20/10/2014). AQAP has expanded its presence in Hadramaut, and according to analysts, the Houthi advance has bolstered support for AQAP and Ansar al Sharia (Reuters, 09/11/2014). According to the national security service, there are around 1,000 Al Qaeda militants in Yemen from 11 Arab and non-Arab countries (AFP, 17/01/2015). On 16 June, it was confirmed that a US drone strike has killed Nasir al Wuhayshi, AQAP’s leader (USA Today, 16/06/2015).
Saudi Arabia firmly backs President Hadi. UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar are providing some of the 100 fighter jets (Washington Post 26/03/2015). The US Government stated it had authorised the provision of logistical and intelligence support to the Saudi Arabian coalition’s military intervention (Amnesty 26/03/2015).
Iran has been accused of backing Houthi militants financially and materially, a claim the Iranian Government denies (Amnesty 26/03/2015). Iran temporarily deployed a warship near Yemen, but also presented a peace plan to the UN calling for a ceasefire and the formation of a unity government (Huffington Post, 08/04/2015; AFP, 25/04/2015).
Security Incidents and Conflict Developments
Cluster munitions have been used by the Saudi-led coalition in airstrikes on Sa’ada governorate (Human Rights Watch, 03/05/2015). In some areas, there have been reports of indiscriminate shelling of houses (OCHA, 04/05/2015). Clashes and airstrikes continue.
Sanaa: On 29 June, IS claimed responsibility for a bomb targeting two Houthi leaders that killed at least 28 people (AFP, 30/06/2015). Over 17–20 June, IS claimed responsibility for several bombs targeting Shi’ite mosques, which killed at least 50 people (ABC, 20/06/2015).
Aden: Airstrikes, shelling, and intense ground fighting continue (Al Jazeera, 20/06/2015). In April, forces loyal to Hadi regained control of part of the coastline that had been held by Houthi forces and Saleh loyalists (Al Jazeera, 19/04/2015).
Al Jawf: Heavy ground fighting continues (Logistics Cluster, 19/06/2015). On 14 June, Houthis took control of Al Hazm, the main city of the governorate, facing little resistance, according to residents and pro-government fighters (AFP, 15/06/2015).
Sa’ada: Airstrikes and clashes continue (Al Jazeera, 20/06/2015). Sa’ada city has been experiencing indiscriminate aerial bombardment. Civilian infrastructure, including the post office, bank, the main market area and phone network have been hit, and civilians have fled the city (OCHA, 05/2015).
Taizz: 24 May saw increased airstrikes, shelling, and clashes (OCHA 25/05/2015). Houthi forces seized part of Taizz city and its military airbase on 23 March (BBC, 22/03/2015; ABC, 23/03/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
An estimated 21.1 million people, 80% of the population, are in need of humanitarian aid (OCHA, 10/06/2015). Children under 18 years old represent 50% of people in need (OCHA, 05/03/2015). 12.2 million people are estimated to be directly affected by the conflict (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Access to safe drinking water, healthcare, and other basic services continues to decline – particularly in Aden, Al Dhalee, Lahj, Sa’ada, Sanaa, and Taizz governorates (USAID, 12/06/2015).
Humanitarian access constraints are particularly severe in Sa’ada, followed by Lahj, Aden, Al Dhalee, Taizz, Abyan, Shabwah, Marib, and Al Jawf (OCHA, 19/06/2015).
An estimated 490,000 people in Sa’ada cannot be reached by humanitarian assistance, most of whom have limited or no access to medical services, clean water, food, and communication (OCHA, 22/05/2015). Other northern governorates such as Hajjah and Amran also have limited access (OCHA, 29/05/2015). Access constraints in Abyan prevent humanitarian aid delivery from Aden to Abyan. Humanitarian partners in Aden confirm that any person entering the districts of Craiter, Al Mualla, Attawahi and Khur Maksar is prevented from leaving (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Many aid agencies have suspended their activities and evacuated their staff (IRIN, 27/03/2015). It is extremely difficult to move within the country to evaluate needs and provide assistance (MSF, 01/04/2015). The arms embargo on the Houthis has also impacted the supply of humanitarian relief (AFP, 02/05/2015).
Since violence escalated, three volunteers with the Yemen Red Crescent have been killed (OCHA, 07/04/2015).
Delivering supplies by road is becoming increasingly difficult due to numerous checkpoints and roadblocks (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Roads connecting Sanaa to Aden, Taizz, Al Dhalee, and Lahj have become gradually inaccessible (WFP, 27/04/2015).
The closure of airspace over Yemen is severely restricting air operations, as are other limitations in neighbouring airspace zones. Sanaa and Taizz airports are operational, but have limited capacity. All other airports in areas with high need are closed (OCHA, 29/05/2015).
The Yemeni government-in-exile has formally banned ships, including those carrying fuel and food, from entering the country’s waters without prior inspection (IRIN, 17/04/2015). As of 30 April, Hudaydah port, Aden oil port, Saleef port, Mokha port and Mukalla port are operating, whereas Balhaf port, Malla container port, and Ras Isa port are closed (Logistics Cluster, 30/04/2015).
Diesel is not available in seven out of 22 governorates, putting 10 million people at risk of losing access to water (WFP, 09/06/2015). Fuel prices have increased by an average of 344% across the country since the conflict escalated (OCHA, 22/05/2015).The fuel shortage is creating severe challenges for the transportation of food, water, and medical supplies, and the operation of water pumps and generators (ECHO, 14/05/2015). Water processing plants in Sanaa city have closed (Logistics Cluster, 30/04/2015).
On average, Yemenis have less than one hour of electricity per day, due to fuel shortages (OCHA, 05/06/2015). The Marib central electricity network has been damaged, causing total disruption of the electricity supply to the city of Sanaa and most governorates (WHO, 13/04/2015; 27/04/2015).
Telephone networks continue to be subject to extended cuts or outages (UNICEF, 19/05/2015).
Several waves of conflict, lack of access, and the fluidity of displacement all make it extremely difficult to estimate displacement figures and needs.
Since 26 March, an estimated 1,020,000 people had been internally displaced by end May, nearly double the number of IDPs in early May (UNHCR, 19/06/2015; OCHA 03/06/2015). This includes 249,530 people in Hajjah, 212,320 in Al Dhalee, 72,720 in Ibb, 62,590 in Amran, 51,770 in Abyan, 47,710 in Al Hudaydah, 42,480 in Taizz, 36,810 in Raymah, 35,440 in Lahj, 35,180 in Hadramaut, 34,730 in Dhamar, 31,500 in Aden, 29,150 in Al Mahwit, 23,850 in Shabwah, 19,430 in Al Jawf, 15,980 in Saada, 8,740 in Marib, 7,910 in Sanaa, 1,820 in Al Bayda and 110 Al Maharah (OCHA, 31/05/2015).
Most IDPs are staying with friends and family (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Internal displacement has put 200,000 host community members in need of assistance themselves (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Refugees and Migrants
Estimates indicate that over 883,000 returnees, refugees and migrants in Yemen currently require assistance, including Yemeni migrants deported from Saudi Arabia (OCHA, 12/06/2015).
There are 257,645 registered refugees: most are Somalis (236,803); 5,934 are Ethiopians (Mixed Migration Secretariat, 28/02/2015). Additionally, Yemen hosts about one million migrants. Partners recorded 4,000 new arrivals from the Horn of Africa in April – about 40% of the level in March (OCHA, 12/06/2015).
At least 2,000 Syrian refugees have been registered in Yemen since August 2014. The total number of Syrians in Yemen is estimated to be more than 10,000 (OCHA, 05/11/2014).
In 2014, nearly 91,600 refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants arrived in Yemen, a 40% increase compared to 2013, according to IOM. They have reported abduction, torture, physical assault, and rape as common forms of abuse (Mixed Migration Secretariat, 28/02/2015).
Conflict in areas close to refugee-hosting sites have resulted in further displacement of refugees and asylum seekers, loss of livelihoods, and a breakdown in basic services (OCHA, 19/06/2015).
In Kharaz refugee camp in Lahj governorate, food rations have run out, the school is closed, health facilities are shutting down, and a general lack of basic services is reported (UNHCR, 19/06/2015).
Yemeni Refugees and Migrants in Other Countries
Since end March, Yemeni refugees have been arriving in Djibouti and in Somalia, in a reversal of migration dynamics (ECHO, 05/04/2015). Since March 2015, at least 42,000 people, both Yemenis and third-country nationals (TCNs) have left Yemen (OCHA, 10/06/2015). As of 25 June, 19,752 have arrived in Djibouti and 18,481 in Somalia (IOM, 25/06/2015).
12.9 million people are food insecure, 2.3 million more than prior to the escalation of the crisis in March (Indicative IPC Analysis, 18/06/2015). 6.07 million people (22.7% of the population) face Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes, while 6.8 million people (25.7%) are in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), according to the June 2015 IPC Analysis. This is a 21% increase in the level of food insecurity since last year (Indicative IPC Analysis, 18/06/2015). The situation is expected to further deteriorate as long as insecurity continues to severely constrain access (Indicative IPC Analysis, 18/06/2015).
Ten governorates are in Emergency: Saa’da, Aden, Abyan, Shabwah, Hajjah, Hodeidah, Taiz, Lahj, Al Dhalee, and Al Bayda (Indicative IPC Analysis, 18/06/2015).
In Abyan, Al Dhalee, Aden, Lahj, Sa’ada and Shabwah, little or no food is generally available. In other governorates, food items are only sporadically available (OCHA, 29/05/2015). Severe food concerns for IDPs in Amran governorate have been reported (OCHA, 23/05/2015). Food security among IDPs in Al Jawf, Marib, Al Bayda, and Shabwah governorates is a major concern (OCHA, 23/05/2015).
Yemen ordinarily imports 90% of its food, however imports of staple foods, such as cereals, have almost completely ceased since the escalation of conflict (OCHA, 29/05/2015). Lack of cooking gas has exacerbated the food security situation (OCHA, 19/06/2015). The price of cooking gas has increased more than 300% since March (OCHA, 17/06/2015).
Agriculture and Markets
In the worst conflict-affected areas, including Sa’ada, Lahj, Taizz, Al Dhalee, and Abyan, crops, storage, and irrigation facilities have been significantly damaged (FAO, 23/06/2015).
Acute fuel shortages have affected food prices (WFP, 10/04/2015). Food prices have increased by an average of 31% since the start of the crisis (OCHA, 29/05/2015).
Lack of fuel and insecurity are preventing the delivery of goods from ports to markets (FEWSNET, 18/06/2015).
Due to lack of fuel, grain milling has ceased (OCHA, 19/06/2015). In many areas, wheat flour is only available on the black market (WFP, 22/05/2015). It is increasingly difficult to store and transport fruits and vegetables due to fuel shortages. Fuel shortages have also affected transportation of livestock to markets (FAO, 23/06/2015). In the Tihamah coastal region, livestock vaccines are no longer available. Lack of fuel has halted animal feed production (FAO, 23/06/2015).
95% of local supermarkets are reportedly closed, affecting in particular people in urban settings (OCHA, 22/05/2015).
Incomes in IDP and host communities are dwindling, affected people are selling their belongings to meet everyday needs (OCHA, 10/06/2015). Many families have lost their sources of income, and can no longer afford sufficient or nutritious food (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Farmers are struggling to sustain their income due to high input costs and low output prices (FAO, 23/06/2015).
Health and Nutrition
About 15.2 million people lack access to basic healthcare, 40% more than in March (OCHA, 03/06/2015; 14/06/2015). At least 160 health facilities have been closed since March (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Mobile health teams in Amran, Al Baydah, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf and Sa’ada governorates are unable to operate (OCHA, 22/05/2015). In Taizz governorate, all public health centres are closed (UNICEF, 09/06/2015).
Ambulance services are non-functional in most areas heavily affected by conflict due to fuel shortages and security threats. Health providers have expressed particular concern regarding the state of public health in Taizz, where there are heavy clashes in residential areas and the delivery of lifesaving medicine is a serious challenge (OCHA, 14/06/2015).
The capacity of the health system to respond to outbreaks, including surveillance and early response capacity, has been severely limited (OCHA, 14/06/2015). Medicines for diabetes, hypertension and cancer are no longer available and there are acute shortages in critical medical supplies – trauma kits, medicines, blood bags and other necessities (OCHA, 12/06/2015).
Health staff are increasingly unable to report to work. The only oxygen generating plant in Yemen has ceased to function due to lack of fuel (OCHA, 19/04/2015). Non-Yemenis make up at least 25% of health workers and their evacuation has added to shortages (WHO, 27/04/2015). Prior to the escalation of the crisis, qualified medical staff were already in short supply, as was medical equipment.
Since the escalation of the conflict, there have been nine incidents of violence against staff and in health facilities and care workers and 65 incidents against health facilities (OCHA, 14/06/2015). There are also reports of ambulances being commandeered by militias (OCHA, 29/05/2015). 53 health facilities have been damaged since March, including 17 hospitals (WHO, 19/06/2015).
Dengue and Malaria
Over 4,081 cases of dengue, including 133 deaths, have been reported by the Governorate Health Office of Aden since April (UNHCR, 19/06/2015). In other governorates, 650 cases of dengue have been reported in Hadramaut, over 480 in Lahj, 220 in Shabwah, and 50 in Taizz (OCHA, 14/06/2015).
In Al Hudaydah, dengue and malaria cases have doubled from the normal caseload. 19,406 cases of dengue and 19,666 cases of malaria have been reported since March (UNHCR, 19/06/2015).
Measles and Rubella
Possible measles outbreaks are currently being investigated in Al Jawf and Sa’ada governorates (40 and almost 300 suspected cases, respectively). Over 365 cases of measles and over 90 cases of rubella have been diagnosed in Yemen over the past year (OCHA, 14/06/2015).
1.5 million women and children are in urgent need of nutrition services (OCHA, 10/06/2015). The number of acutely malnourished children could rise to 1.3 million in the coming weeks, including 400,000 potential SAM cases (OCHA, 12/06/2015). In 2014, 840,000 children under five were acutely malnourished, according to the Nutrition Cluster; 170,000 were severely malnourished (Comprehensive Food Security Survey, 11/2014). Since March, there has been a 150% increase in hospital admissions for malnutrition (WHO, 19/06/2015).
In early February, 61 out of 333 districts in Yemen were reported to have critical levels of GAM (over 15%) and another 105 serious levels (10–14.9% GAM) (OCHA, 14/02/2015).
At least 20 million people lack access to clean water (WHO, 19/06/2015). Since the escalation of the crisis, 9.4 million people have lost access to safe water due to fuel shortages (OCHA, 05/06/2015). Millions of people are receiving less than an hour of uninterrupted water supply per day. Prior to the escalation of the crisis, 12.1 million were without access to improved sanitation, and 4.4 million lacked access to adequate sanitation (OCHA, 28/02/2015).
Public water networks in eight major cities are at imminent risk of collapse (OCHA, 19/06/2015). The lack of power combined with damaged water pumps in the south have forced people to resort to water collection from unprotected and abandoned wells. Water trucks do not have fuel to make deliveries (OCHA, 22/05/2015). The price of water trucking has increased by two to four times in many areas (OCHA, 19/06/2015). The high price of water is a major concern for poor households, who are unable to access safe drinking water (Thomson Reuters Foundation, 29/06/2015).
Solid waste collection has been suspended and sewage treatment plants have reduced operations in several major cities (OCHA, 19/06/2015).
Lack of drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities have been reported in sites hosting IDPs in Al Jawf and Marib governorates (OCHA, 23/05/2015).
1.2 million people are in need of emergency shelter or essential household items (OCHA, 12/06/2015).
The majority of IDPs are hosted by relatives. Some families are reportedly hosting up to six or seven displaced (IOM, 22/05/2015). In southern Yemen, IDPs are staying in schools or health facilities. In Abyan, displaced families have been reported in open spaces or makeshift shelters (IOM, 22/05/2015).
In Sanaa, displaced people in Amanat Al Asimah area staying with host families are crowded, without adequate WASH facilities (OCHA, 22/05/2015). In Amran, many IDPs are reported to be living in the open; fear of airstrikes is preventing them taking shelter in public buildings (OCHA, 10/05/2015).
IDPs in Al Jawf and Marib governorates are primarily staying with host families or in abandoned facilities, including schools. Overcrowding and lack of food and adequate WASH facilities have been reported (OCHA, 23/05/2015).
An inter-agency assessment in Hajjah found that shelter was one of the three greatest needs (UNHCR, 17/04/2015).
In Hajjah, Al Hudaydah and Abyan governorates, around 3,500 families are living in open spaces or in tents and other improvised shelters. Many lost all their belongings.
Shelter is a major problem in Lahj and many families have now moved into schools and health facilities where they feel safer. These families lived in mud houses that are now destroyed by the conflict (OCHA, 19/04/2015).
In Amran governorate, members of the marginalised Muhamasheen community and other vulnerable IDPs have settled in old houses and other inadequate structures, where they are vulnerable to attack and heavy rains (OCHA, 10/06/2015).
Refugees that were previously self-reliant are now dependent on humanitarian assistance and unable to afford adequate shelters in urban areas, leading to overcrowding (OCHA, 19/06/2015).
2.9 million children require emergency access to education (OCHA, 10/06/2015). Over 3,600 schools have closed since March and reports indicate that at least 400 schools have been directly affected by the conflict: 96 have been damaged, 67 occupied by armed groups, and 237 are hosting IDPs (UNICEF, 16/06/2015; OCHA, 12/06/2015). In schools hosting IDPs, classroom equipment, such as desks and benches, is being used for firewood (UNICEF, 23/06/2015).
87% of schools in the five southern governorates are closed (UN, 08/06/2015). No schools are operating in Sanaa city, Sa’ada, Hajjah, Al Hudaydah, Mahwit, Aden, Al Bayda or Marib governorates. In Taizz governorate, more than 160,000 children are unable to attend school due to conflict (OCHA, 29/05/2015).
Prior to the conflict, an estimated 2.5 million children were not in school (OCHA, 04/2014).
11.4 million people are in need of protection assistance, including about 7.3 million children (OCHA, 12/06/2015).
Since the conflict escalated in March, use of explosive weapons in populated areas, attacks on civilian infrastructure, increased recruitment of children, and attacks against humanitarian workers have continued to be reported (OCHA, 19/06/2015). Protesters against the Houthi takeover have been illegally detained and tortured, according to several reports (AFP, 14/02/2015; Amnesty, 16/02/2015).
Over January, 1,490 migrants and refugees arriving in Yemen were reportedly abducted. 234 were women. A further 243 migrants and refugees reported being physically assaulted and 63 reported robbery or extortion (RMMS, 31/01/2015).
Due to their marginalisation, the Mumasheen minority have greater humanitarian needs than the average population (UNICEF, 20/02/2015).
As of 16 June, 279 children have been reported killed and 402 injured (UNICEF, 16/06/2015).
Up to 30% of fighters in armed groups are children (OCHA, 22/12/2014). Since the escalation of the conflict, the 159 boys have been confirmed as recruited by armed groups (OCHA, 12/06/2015). Houthis, Ansar al Sharia, AQAP and state forces are all recruiting children (Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, 01/10/2014). Armed children guard checkpoints throughout Sa’ada, Ibb, Hudaydah, and Amran (UNICEF, 31/12/2014; 20/01/2015).
About 100,000 women are predicted to require support related to gender-based violence in 2015. GBV in Yemen remains critically under-reported (OCHA, 22/12/2014).
Mines and ERW
Landmines and explosive remnants of war are a major concern in northern governorates. Since March, incidents of civilians wounded in cluster munition attacks in Sada’a governorate have been reported (Human Rights Watch, 31/05/2015). In Lahj, local partners report that AQAP has placed landmines in Al Hamra area of Al Hawta district in order to guard against any Houthi advance (OCHA 31/03/2015). The Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC) has confirmed the presence of cluster munition remnants in four districts on the border between Sada’a governorate and Saudi Arabia (Cluster Monitor, 04/12/2014).
26 June: Heavy rains in Douala flooded 60,000 hectares of land, forcing more than 80,000 people to evacuate their homes (Reuters).
- 2.1 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 17/12/2014).
- 311,000 refugees have arrived from CAR and Nigeria (OCHA, 31/03/2015).
- An estimated 1.08 million people are food insecure in 2015 (OCHA, 16/06/2015).
Conflict in both Nigeria and CAR continues to displace vulnerable refugees to Cameroon, and the spillover from the Boko Haram conflict in Nigeria in particular threatens security in Cameroon. Some 2.1 million people, 10% of the population, are in need of humanitarian assistance, primarily in the Far North, North, Adamawa, and East regions.
The armed Islamist group Boko Haram (BH), based in Nigeria, intensified attacks in Cameroon from December 2014 (ECHO, 06/01/2015). BH militants crossed into the Far North region from Lake Chad, attacking towns and villages, military vehicles, kidnapping individuals, and attempting to control army bases (AFP, 06/04/2015; Reuters, 18/12/2014; VoA, 13/12/2014; BBC, 29/12/2014; AFP, 29/01/2015). Cross-border raids continued in 2015, intended to obtain food and livestock. While attacks are still concentrated in the Far North region, they have spread southward (AFP, 06/04/2015). There have been at least 18 BH attacks in northern Cameroon since January 2015 (AFP, 12/05/2015).
The United States is supplying equipment and logistics training to the Cameroonian military to aid its efforts to counter BH campaign (VoA, 12/12/2014, Reuters, 17/02/2015). Both Cameroon and Chad pledged to support Cameroon in fighting BH. Operations against BH have included air and ground offensives and are ongoing as of 18 June (Daily Mail, 14/01/2015; New York Times, 05/02/2015).
Boko Haram cross-border attacks are increasing, as the group seeks food supplies and escaping Nigerian and regional forces. Authorities believe the militant group is opting for isolated but targeted attacks in villages or highways (OCHA, 15/06/2015). Throughout April, the villages of Bia, Blaberi (Kolofata district), Amchide, and Mbeng were attacked (Reuters, 25/04/2015; 17/04/2015; AFP, 17/04/2015).
Humanitarian Context and Needs
2.1 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance (OCHA, 17/12/2014).
The limited number of humanitarian actors involved in the response in the Far North has made comprehensive humanitarian intervention almost impossible.
Bad road conditions delay the provision of assistance.
The deterioration of the security situation has made access to the Far North extremely difficult. Although the Cameroonian army retook the border towns, the area remains insecure, and armed groups are present (OCHA, 10/04/2015). UN agencies have only been undertaking priority activities such as assisting refugees and some host communities, according to WFP (IRIN, 15/08/2014). Organisations like UNHCR do not have access to certain localities where refugees are present (UNHCR, 25/01/2015).
Heavy rains in Douala flooded 60,000 hectares of land, forcing more than 80,000 people to leave their homes (Reuters).
At April 2015, there were 417,000 displaced people in Cameroon, including 311,000 refugees from CAR and Nigeria. As of 28 May, there are approximately 151,000 IDPs and refugees in Far North region displaced due to BH attacks (OCHA, 10/04/2015; UNICEF, 23/04/2015). As attacks increase, people are moving toward central Cameroon (OCHA, 06/01/2015).
As of 29 June, there were 81,700 IDPs in the Far North region (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015). 33,900 are in Mayo-Tsanaga department, 32,680 in Logone-et-Chari, 12,480 in Mayo-Sava, and 2,630 in Diamare (UNHCR and IOM, 19/06/2015). 36% live with host families, 28% live in shared housing and the rest in improvised, damaged, or public buildings. Food security, WASH, and health are the priority needs (UNHCR and IOM, 19/06/2015). Nearly half of the IDPs are displaced within the same department but a different arrondissement (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015). 35,960 people have returned to their place of origin (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015).
Refugees from the Central African Republic
As of 22 June, 243,549 CAR refugees are in Cameroon (OCHA 22/06/2015). 55% live in camps, 45% are with host communities (UNHCR, 05/06/2015). Many refugees have crossed without being registered. A reduced flow of refugees indicates an improved situation in CAR, but many people are reluctant to go home because they are concerned about food security and livelihoods (VoA, 16/03/2015).
Refugees from Nigeria
74,000 Nigerians are estimated to have fled to northern Cameroon since May 2013 (UNHCR, 20/04/2015; OCHA, 28/05/2015).
37,171 Nigerian refugees have been registered in Minawao camp, in the Far North. There have been 5,150 new arrivals at the camp since 1 April, and 26,000 new Nigerian refugees in total since 30 December 2014 (UNICEF, 28/05/2015; UNHCR, 23/05/2015). 87% of refugees in the camp have access to adequate shelter (UNHCR, 23/05/2015).The camp’s original maximum capacity was 15,000. The needs among refugees are largely WASH, shelter, health and education (UNHCR, 15/04/2015).
People living outside the camp do not receive humanitarian assistance and lack of identification is a concern (UNHCR, 25/03/2015).
In most locations, the number of refugees and third-country nationals exceeds the local population. Host communities and refugees are competing over already inadequate resources and living conditions have become very difficult for host communities (FAO, 11/12/2014).
As of June, 1.08 million people are food insecure, mostly in the Far North, North, Adamawa, and East regions, with 244,000 in severe food insecurity (OCHA, 16/06/2015; Reuters; 29/05/2015). 54% of households in the Far North and North regions face shortages. An estimated 34.4% of refugee households from CAR are food insecure (FAO, 11/12/2014). 70% of farmers in the Far North have deserted their farms and missed out on planting (AFP, 28/01/2015).
Dryness in the Sahel belt and the strain of hosting so many refugees are also affecting food security (ECHO, 06/01/2015).
Food Security in the Sahel
In the Sahel and West Africa about 7.5 million people, including 4.5 million in the Sahel, will be in food and nutrition crisis between June and August (Cadre Harmonisé, 06/2015). In 2014, food insecurity rose dramatically to 24.7 million food insecure people, compared to 2013, when 11.3 million people had inadequate food (OCHA, 03/02/2015).
Health and Nutrition
As of September 2014, 6.8 million people are in need of health services (IOM, 09/2014).
Cameroon's Far North, North, Adamawa, and East regions suffer chronic shortages of health workers. 46% of health centres do not have access to electricity and 70% do not have piped water (Inter Press Service, 19/08/2014).
Acute respiratory infections and malaria are the leading causes of death in refugee camps (UNHCR, 01/03/2015). Malaria is the main health issue among the approximately 30,000 refugees and 40,000 IDPs scattered around Kousseri, the capital of Logone-et-Chari department, Far North region (MSF, 29/05/2015).
CAR refugees mostly suffer from malnutrition, malaria, and respiratory infections, according to an ECHO needs assessment. A number of measles cases have been reported among child refugees.
There are 70,000 SAM cases nationally, and 190,000 MAM cases among children under five (OCHA, 11/06/2015). 39,000 children under five in the Far North are severely malnourished (UNICEF, 23/04/2015). There have been 6,320 cases of SAM in districts hosting IDPs since January (UNICEF, 15/05/2015). The prevalence of SAM in the Far North is 2.0%, while global acute malnutrition (GAM) is 9% (UNHCR, 29/03/2015). There were 40% more cases of severe malnutrition in January 2015 compared to the start of 2014 (OCHA, 30/01/2015).
IDPs face a high risk of water-related disease due to lack of adequate water and sanitation facilities in affected areas. In Minawao, refugees have 12L/person/day (UNHCR, 08/06/2015). In East and Adamawa regions, only two out of seven refugee sites have the standard of 20L/person/day (UNHCR, 17/04/2015).
Almost 30,000 children internally displaced by BH are deprived of education (AFP, 12/05/2015). 519 schools are open in the Far North, down from 737 before the conflict (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015).
Students have been moving toward the country’s interior and the government has been assisting in moving populations to more secure areas (VoA, 25/11/2014).
Primary school attendance in camps has increased from 44% to 63%. Secondary school attendance has dropped from 67% to 55%, despite advocacy with parents (UNHCR, 09/06/2015).
In Minawao camp, there are only three primary schools – 21 classrooms – to accommodate more than 6,600 primary school-aged children (IRIN, 12/05/2015). The majority of people residing in Minawao camp have no formal education or profession (UNHCR, 21/03/2015).
The main protection issues among assessed IDPs are family separation, lack or loss of personal identity documentation, early marriage, and harassment or discrimination (IOM/UNHCR, 29/06/2015). 27 cases of sexual violence have been reported in Minawao camp (UNHCR, 15/04/2015).
Approximately 1,500 children have been abducted by Boko Haram in Cameroon since late 2014 (AFP, 04/06/2015). 84 children have been illegally detained for six months in the Far North region, after authorities raided Koranic schools under allegations that they were training to join Boko Haram (Amnesty International, 21/06/2015).
The Cameroonian Government is refuting allegations by a regional human rights organisation that it is treating suspected BH fighters inhumanely. The allegations emerged following the death of 25 prisoners in December 2014 (Reuters, 13/03/2015).